Introduction Visa ensures a foreigner accesses employment while
Due to technological advancement, the world has become a global village spurring employers to seek labor from the international market. However, due to the high level of insecurity there are rules and regulations to abide by before crossing the border. Besides employment, people travel internationally for tourism or holiday purposes, businesses, medical, interracial marriages and education among others.
Currently, China is among the world’s most powerful economies thus prompting it to seek external labor. Different countries have diverse ways, which watch the movement and entrance of foreigners into their territories. For instance, a transit visa for persons on international tours applies to nearly all countries worldwide. The next discussion expounds on the types of Visas and the working environment foreigners experience while in Japan, China, India and South Korea.
Working in Japan
Before a foreigner accesses employment in Japan he or she has to acquire a work permit or working visa. Foreigners with degrees, adequate professional experience and sponsorship have the highest chance to acquire a working Visa and the job market presents them with better employment opportunities.
However, incase one changes the professionalism, it is necessary the authorities show the changes on the working visa. Foreigners with permanent residence permit or a spouse visa are free to seek employment in the Japanese job market. Fortunately, citizens between the ages of eighteen and thirty originating from New Zealand, Canada, Australia, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Ireland and Korea are eligible to working holiday Visa .
The visa enables them to engage in paid jobs during their holiday in Japan but only lasts for three months. As earlier mentioned only skilled foreign workers have a better chance to get access to the Japanese labor market. Due to poor reception of foreigners, there is no job security in Japan (Sassen 80). Most firms give foreigners contracts and subcontracts, which last between three months to one year (Tano 120).
The mediocre salary for the unskilled labor is unable to cater for basic needs and educate the worker’s children. Consequently, there is an increase in the number of the uneducated children in Japan. The workers lack crucial benefits like vacations, pensions and insurance cover leading to a poor health style (Tano 121). Therefore, the poor working attitude towards foreigners especially those with unskilled labor lead to criticism from the human right activists.
There are five types of Visas for foreigners who wish to travel to Japan. The working Visa ensures a foreigner accesses employment while the working holidays Visa is for citizens from specific countries. People with a proof of the acceptance in a Japanese education institution acquire a student visa while spouse visa is for married people.
The rules and regulations of Japan do not allow students to work. However, sometimes students can seek employment for specified hours through permission from the immigration officers. Finally, tourists and businessperson get a tourist visa. Temporary visitors cannot engage in paid activities-it is against the Japanese law. Furthermore, there is exemption of tourist visa for persons from specified countries.
The rules allow them to use a passport. While in Japan, each foreigner has to move around with the visa as a form of identification. Therefore, practically to secure good employment in Japan a person has to have a degree or formal education and a working permit. In addition, students, spouses and permanent residences with higher education are eligible for employment.
Working in China
For a foreigner to penetrate the Job market in China he or she has to get a Z visa/work visa, which may also let him to move with his/her family. China has available labor market reducing its need for importation of external labor force (Offe 69). However, the few foreigners in China complain of the long working conditions.
The Chinese work for forty-eight hours a week (Offe 70). Before applying for a work permit, a person has to collaborate with an employment agency with a license to recruit non-citizens. Most employers cover education cost for the children and health insurance for all family members. Foreigners are ineligible to apply for pensions schemes while working in China. Non-Chinese persons who have worked for more than one year in China have to produce a valid health certificate.
There are about six types of Visas available for foreigners but each depends on the purpose of travel. For instance, L visa is for a person(s) who intends to visit friends or family members. The F visa is for visitors, researchers, lecturers, and investigators but the visa is only for a short-term basis.
The Z visa is for employment, which grants a person to engage in paid activities. Registered employers have to apply the visa on behalf of the foreigner. The X visa is for students and interns (for not more than six months), and the tourist groups Visa is accessible to more than five persons on vacation.
Finally, the D visa is for permanent residency in China. Spouses who are non-Chinese citizens receive a spouse residence permit, which also allows them to seek employment. Similar to Japan people from specific countries can land in China without applying for the visa. Therefore, the practical guidelines for a foreigner intending to penetrate the Chinese job market include skilled labor, familiarity with foreign employment agencies and possession of a working visa or a spouse residence permit.
Working in India
The Indian authority only issues a work visa/permit to skilled professionals only. Before getting employment, a foreigner has to register with the Foreigner Regional registration officer, which is mandatory within fourteen days of arrival. A foreign employee in India gets a good salary, health insurance and housing. However, the employment terms are on contract basis to the Visa or residence permit.
There are five types of Visas for foreigners intending to cross the Indian borders. For example, the medical visa is for a foreigner who is seeking further medical treatment. India is among the world’s best and cheapest nation with advanced medical equipment. Thus, most patients with chronic ailments go to India for better medical check up. The Medical visa lasts up to one year except in few circumstances where the authorities have to alter the duration.
The student visa is for education purpose and its duration lasts up to five years. A business visa applies to people who set up businesses/partnership with the natives. Validity of the visa ranges between three months to five years. Before accessing the business visa, a person has to have a letter from an Indian sponsoring company. The tourist visa is for visitors who are intending to stay for about six months.
Sometimes there is a transit visa for people who pass through India while on international trips. The medical and tourist visa can never grant a permanent residence to foreigners. The work permit is for employment purpose. Thus, foreigners have to own a work permit and register with the foreign regional office to penetrate the Indian job market. Moreover, one cannot access a visa unless he/she has a sponsor for their recommendation.
Working in South Korea
In 1997, South Korea imposed equal working conditions between foreigners and natives. Minimizing exploitation from employers, the foreigners have similar working conditions like the natives (Lim 329). Salary payment, insurance coverage and other benefits are similar despite of citizenship.
In case of dissatisfaction with the terms and conditions of employment, the foreigners can complain or engage in strike to raise their grievances. South Korea is one of the few countries, which has imposed equal employment terms for both natives and foreigners.
However, before crossing the borders of South Korea a foreigner has to apply for an employment Visa, which Depends on the type or duration of the employment. The C-4 is a visa for persons who are seeking for short-term employment, E1applies for university professors, E2 is for instructors, E3 applies to researchers, E4 is for technical instructors, E5 is for consultants, E6 is for entertainers, and E7 applies to a specialized profession, E8 a trainee eligible for employment and E9 applies to non-professional persons.
The H1 and H2 are for working holiday and working visitors respectively. The study visas depend on the type of training and include C3 for short-term visit, D2 to a general student D3 is for an industrial trainee and D4 for a general trainee. The D5 visa applies to Journalists; D6 is for religious persons, D7 for employee, D8 for foreign invested persons while D9 is for international Trade and Management persons.
The F1, F2, F3, F4 and F5 are for families, permanent residence, spouses, overseas Korean and foreign persons seeking permanent residence respectively. A1 is a diplomatic visa, A2 for government officers and A3 for treaty. B1 is for persons from countries where visa exemption applies while B2 is a transit visa for people on international trips.
Finally, the tourist and business visas are valid between thirty and ninety days. Fortunately, through agreement with some countries, South Korea grants their citizens entry without a visa. Therefore, the acquisition of a working visa automatically enables a foreigner to work in South Korea.
Exempting Japan the working conditions for foreigners in India, China and South Korea are favorable. South Korea grants the best employment terms because all employees are equal. Besides few exemptions, the aforementioned countries have similar types of visas and terms of employment.
A person seeking international employment from Japan, China, India and South Korea has to apply for a working visa or working holiday visa depending on the international agreement between the countries. Spouses and permanent residences are free to access the job markets.
Students have to seek permission from the authorities before engaging in payment activities. Although South Korea has the highest number of Visas, it presents the best working environment for foreigners while China is the only country with a population boom thus it rarely seeks foreigners for employment purposes. Finally, to access a better job in the foreign soils a person has to have a formal training with a higher education level.
Lim, Timothy. “The fight for equal rights: the power of foreign workers in South Korea.” Alternatives 24.3 (1999 🙂 329-359.Print.
Offe, Claus. Disorganized capitalism: contemporary transformation of work and politics. Cambridge: polity press, 1985. Print.
Sassen, Sakis. The mobility of labor and capital: study in international investment and labor flow. New York: Cambridge University press, 1988. Print.
Tano, Kiyoto. “The economic crisis and foreign workers in Japan: why does Japan treat migrant workers as second class citizens?” Japan labor review 7.3 (2010): 110-126