# Without In the continuous-time approximation, the average current

Without
the coarse-tuning loop, the locked time of the PLL would be longer due to the
smaller charge/discharge current of the fine-tuning loop. As illustrated in Fig
5 and Fig 6 the coarse-tuning loop is composedWithout
the coarse-tuning loop, the locked time of the PLL would be longer due to the
smaller charge/discharge current of the fine-tuning loop. As illustrated in Fig
5 and Fig 6 the coarse-tuning loop is composed of a coarse PFD and charge-pump
and the charge-pump has large charge/discharge current Ic. In the
continuous-time approximation,

the
average current Ich is given as

Ich =

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Øe

Øe
is the phase difference between two input signals ext and int, and Ic
is the charge-pump current for the loop filter. The transfer function curve of
the coarse-tuning loop is shown in Fig. 8. The delay width |Ød| is the dead zone of the coarse PFD.
The operation of the coarse PFD can be divided into two cases. If the phase
difference Øe
> |Ød|, then the coarse charge-pump will
output the corresponding current Ic controlled by the coarse PFD. On the other
hand, if phase difference Øe < |Ød|, then the coarse charge-pump will output no current. of a coarse PFD and charge-pump and the charge-pump has large charge/discharge current Ic. In the continuous-time approximation, the average current Ich is given as Ich =  Øe Øe is the phase difference between two input signals ext and int, and Ic is the charge-pump current for the loop filter. The transfer function curve of the coarse-tuning loop is shown in Fig. 8. The delay width |Ød| is the dead zone of the coarse PFD. The operation of the coarse PFD can be divided into two cases. If the phase difference Øe > |Ød|, then the coarse charge-pump will
output the corresponding current Ic controlled by the coarse PFD. On the other
hand, if phase difference Øe < |Ød|, then the coarse charge-pump will output no current.

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