Why 2015). Nevertheless, the major identified principles

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Why is
North Korea so antagonistic to the West?


  North Korea, since it
separated in 1948, has been secluded and showing, with unreceptive associations
with South Korea and Western countries. It has shown a great capacity in
developing chemical weapons, short-range missiles, medium-range missiles and
nuclear weapons. In finding out the reasons why North Korea is so antagonistic
to the West, this paper will use the framework of PEST, which analyzes the
Political, Economic, Social and Technological factors. The paper will analyze
the PEST framework on the basis of three theories that are mostly applied when
analyzing international relations.  The three most well-known
international relation theories include realism, liberalism, and constructivism
(Fierke, 2015). Realism theory of global relationships ever since the
commencement of the discipline has been largely applied. Realists regard World
War II outbreak as proof of the faults in idealist thoughts. Modern-day realist
thinking exists in different ways (Fierke, 2015). Nevertheless, the major
identified principles of the theory include statism, survival, and self-help.














PEST Analysis

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Social Factors

  Based on the principal of
statism, in realism theory, pragmatists believe that the main actors in
international politics are State Nations. In isolation, it is a state-centric
assumption of international relations.  This is in difference with liberal
international relations theories where there is accommodation of non-state
actors’ roles and international institutions roles (Fierke, 2015). In this
light, North Korea has been discouraged by the U.S for decades. For 64 years
now, since 1953, when the Korean War ended, North Korea has not commenced a war
in reclaiming South Korea (Ross, 2016). This is due to the reason that the U.S
has always ensured that any efforts by North Korea to really launch a war would
be disastrously expensive. This has been achieved by the U.S strategy of
placing tens of thousands of troops as well as nation destroying weapons parked
in South Korea and Japan (Ross, 2016). This is despite South Korea being
defenseless, for instance, in 1961 and 1980, when it went through military
coup. There is also the principle of self-help, in realism theory, where
pragmatists suppose that there is no alternative state that can be relied upon
to aid in assuring the state’s survival. The North has taken other antagonistic
measures against the U.S and its stakeholders over decades (Ross, 2016). 
For example, they have shot down American spy planes and killed people in zones
that are not militarized, specifically in the boundary between North and South
Korea. Development of nuclear weapons has been continuing and the ballistic
missiles required in delivering them. At the same time, they have plainly been
intimidating the United States with nuclear war. Based on the principle of
survival, in realism theory, pragmatists think that anarchy governs the
international systems, indicating that there is no central influence.

Similarly, international politics involves struggling for power between
self-centered states. This principle explains clearly why North Korea is so
antagonist to the west. The aim of Kim Jong-un, the current North Korean
leaders, is of the idea that the country should be taken seriously as a nuclear
power, like the U.S, Britain, Russia, and India. He also aims at protecting and
preserving his regime (Ross, 2016). The United States is to be blamed as
having brought the nuclear war into the Korean peninsula. According to China,
this particular war could be used to serve as the start of fresh and more
effectual dialogue among the United States, Russian Federation, China and North
Korea. It is clear that North Korea launches missiles towards the United States
for the reason that it needs to stop it from organizing for an administrative
change in North Korea.

Political Factors

  The west, which includes
the United States and its Asian associates such as South Korea, considers North
Korea as dangerous. This is due to the reason that their military force is one
of the largest in the world. These forces, in combination with its rising missile
and testing of nuclear as well as destructive weapons, have raised concerns
globally. However, the influence of the world has been unsuccessful in slowing
acquisition the nuclear weapons. To sustain his regime, Kim Jong-un, the
North’s leader considers the nuclear program as the best way.   Some
pragmatists, recognized as classical or human nature pragmatists, suppose that
states are  hostile, that territory takeover is controlled only by
opposing command, whilst others, recognized as defensive /offensive
pragmatists, suppose that states are infatuated with the security and
persistence of the state’s survival (Fierke, 2015). The protective view will
result in a security dilemma, whereby to increase an individual security can
convey along superior volatility as the antagonist(s) assembles up its personal
weapons. This will make protection a zero-sum game, since just relative
achievements can be made. The nuclear capabilities, in North Korea, have
been revealed through testing a chain of diverse missiles. There were short
missiles, medium missiles, intercontinental and intermediate – range, and
launched –submarine ballistic missiles (Ross, 2016). These capabilities are
masked in secrecy since Kim Jong-un’s administration is so mysterious and
inaccessible from the rest of the world. Western permits and pledges of action
from China have failed to stop its nuclear programme (Ross, 2016). There
are increasing worries of North Korea developing a nuclear weapon that can
reach America before 2022 (Fierke, 2015). In the meantime, Kim Jong-un’s rule
poses an actual menace to Japan and its neighbor South Korea, where the US has
established its THAAD anti-missile system. Political risk consultancy warns
that the North Koreans have considerably highly developed and also set to
enlarge their nuclear and missile programs. Idealism was the predecessor
to liberal international relations theory. In regards to international
relations, Idealism is a school of thought, which holds that the goal of a
foreign policy of a state should be made by the state’s internal political
philosophy (Fierke, 2015). For instance, an idealist might consider helping
tackle poverty from abroad in order to end poverty at home. Kim Jong-II
response of the reasons why he spends the scarce resources of the country on
ballistic missiles was that he wanted to let the world know the country has
missiles and it would be the only way the U.S will negotiate with him. Kim
Jong-un, the current leader, gave the reasons that it is the only way to ensure
that the U.S will not attack North Korea or attempt to remove him from power.

From the recent history of Iraq and Libya, Korea must have gathered the lessons
that giving up the nuclear weapons programme would mean the end of the regime.


Economic Factors

  The intensity of influence
is sequentially verified by the state’s martial, political, as well as
financial ability. Despite North Korea having inadequate monetary resources,
the military count stands at 7.7 million reservists and 1.19 million service
members. The nation, which is regarded as remote country, has 25 million
citizens. In this nation, there are 302 helicopters, 72 submarines 3,500 battle
tanks, 563 combat aircraft as well as 21,100 weaponry piece. This makes North
Korea one of the most influential militaries worldwide (Hughes, 2013). In
a move to ensure the capability of handling serious position of the nuclear
threat and infinite war aggravations of the United States as well as its
allies, North Korea declared to continue dedicating about 16% of its state
financial plan to defense. This would reinforce the self-protection and
preventative potentials centered on the country’s nuclear-armed forces (Hughes,
2013).Though North Korea continues to be a threat, the abilities of the United
States martial in general are unmatched. The U.S. military budgets account for
gross domestic product, thus becoming the world’s largest budget. Approximately
$618 billion is spent in a year on weapons and other military abilities. The
nuclear warheads, in reserve, are nearly 8,000 aircrafts, 13,900 attacking
helicopters and 920 submarines. Also, there are 800 abroad military bases in 70
countries spread across tactical regions all throughout the globe, and the
militias stationed in 150 countries are approximate to 150,090. The United
States soldier’s employment is about 1,066,600 service men.  The U.S
martial can rapidly get stronger and better considering president Trump’s move
in advising the Congress to increase the military expenditure by 10%.

 North Korea crisis will heavily impact the economy of China. 
Apparently, the position of China is not in favor of North Korea. This is
because Beijing have banned coal imports from North Korea. Additionally, North
Korea has been urged by China that it should not take any measures that advance
the strength of North Korea (Hughes, 2013).





Technological Factors

  Realism theory has a
number of key suppositions. It supposes that nation-states are unitary and
geologically based actors in a rebellious global system.  This system has
no influence besides that it is able to regulate connections between states
since no factual commanding world government exists.  Secondly, it
supposes that the primary actors in international affairs are sovereign states,
rather than multinational corporations, non-governmental organizations or
intergovernmental organizations (Fierke, 2015). Therefore, there is a contest
between states. In isolation, a state that acts independently while searching
self-interest, has the principal objective of upholding and guaranteeing the
particular country’s safety, and as a result its domination and strength.

Realism says that a state tries to accumulate resources, and hence
relationships between states are indomitable by the nation’s relation intensity
of influence (Fierke, 2015).A private United States intelligence evaluation
allegedly made conclusions that an expert has been developed in North Korea
with the capability of monitoring a nuclear weapon that fits ballistic
missiles. And some specialists warn that it is just a matter of time before
North Korea completes its nuclear force. It seems that the world has to learn
to live with the North Korea’s capability to target the United States with
nuclear weapons (Roehrig, 2013). The fact that they are enthusiastic in
testing the missiles so often proposes they are not in reality concerned about
supply. If they did not have the capability to create several missiles, then
they might have been a bit more unwilling to experiment. Manufacturing in North
Korea has increased.  This is because; a number of the items that required
to be imported from abroad can now be manufactured locally in North Korea. This
creation ensures a local chain in supply, for instance, missiles (Roehrig,
2013).This capability does not mean that the missile as well as nuclear
expertise in North Korea is high-tech. Most blueprints have existed since the
time of the Cold War. At that time North Korea obtained technology on nuclear
from the Soviet Union. Through the years, it obtained the technology on weapons
from Pakistan, China, Iran, and others.  North Korea, being a country
under authority, could be considered inspiring in the sense that it has
progressively pursued different innovations out of necessity. Though the
country may have received an old technology, training, and assistance, it is
amazing about how it has stood out with reference to the same technology.

Despite the fact that the technology in North Korea is not revolutionary, it is
proportionate with the potentials and the intensity of exertion the country has
placed into it. The defense industry of the country was vigorous; there has
been an expansion of the industrial facilities and scientific literature (Kang
& Kim, 2011). As highly developed industrialized expertise becomes more
effortlessly accessible globally, everything gets easier over time with
reference to North Korea as it is able to capitalize on these new technologies.



holds that the primary determinant of a state’s behavior is its preferences
rather than capabilities. While liberalism agrees to the plurality of state
actions, realism sees states as a unitary actor. Therefore, preferences will
differ from state to state, on the bases of the economic system, culture or the
type of government. Liberalism also holds that relations-linking states are not
restricted to the high politics and security but also low politics, economy and
culture. Whether via associations or otherwise, individuals or commercial firms
(Fierke, 2015). Accordingly, in place of a rebellious international system,
there are various chances for collaboration along with broader ideas of
influence, for instance, cultural capital.  Another theory is that an
absolute gain should be made through collaboration and interdependence, at the
same time achieving harmony.   Giving a thought of the practicality
of North Korea giving up the current nuclear weapons that they have stockpiled
seems impossible. But at least, resolving the existing catastrophe will require
the commitment of the current regime to the four “no’s” (Roehrig, 2013). 
First, the regime should commit to the “no more bombs” that would broaden the
current bombs that they have piled in stock. Secondly, they should commit to
“no better bombs”, this will ensure that testing of nuclear weapons will come
to an end. Thirdly, they should commit to “no missile testing”. This will
ensure that production of weapons that would increase their present variety
will come to an end. Finally, there should be a commitment to “no exporting
bombs”, any other nuclear weapons or any technology on the missile.The
accomplishment of this objective through negotiations will be immense. But the
United States and its associates could incite the North in the trial to bring
it to agree unwillingly. The United States should cooperate with China, and
together they can elevate the expenditure that Kim Jong-un spends on the
weapons. This will make Kim Jong-un unable to continue with his present
immensely hazardous pathway (Manyin, 2014).North Korea has shown its persistent
quest for nuclear weapons as a self-protective plan to discourage an assault or
attack on it by the South Korea, U.S, or Japan. However, the dilemma is that
development of fresh artillery changes the stability of power among opponents
(Kang & Kim, 2011). Trump sees an opportunity to end decades of stalemate
over the North Korean issue and the recent strikes in Syria and Afghanistan, by
the U.S are a clear indication of the country’s commitment. President Trump
diverted the US aircraft carrier, Carl Vinson, which was a guided missile
cruiser and submarine, to the Sea of Japan after Kim Jong-un tested a missile
(Manyin, 2014). Beijing stopped importing coal, an important export for the
regime, but Trump has little chances of persuading North Korea’s only ally to
take action against Kim Jong-un, due to China’s concern of a unified Korea
allied with the US (Manyin, 2014). At the moment, North Korea ought to be
confronted with a deep-seated alternative. It should encounter crippling
worldwide financial sanctions including the Chinese oil embargo. This will
activate the crumple of the regime, or bring on provable negotiations in ending
the development of nuclear weapons agenda.










  The North’s compliance to
claim the artillery agenda would serve as a precondition for discussions
regarding fresh ways of reducing tension on the Korean peninsula (Manyin,
2014). The discussions will include a peace agreement that the Kim
administration will be recognized. Also, the relationship between the United
States and North Korea will be normalized. The talks would also enhance the
flow of investment and trade deals that will be helpful in modernizing the
economy of the North’s (Hughes, 2013). At the end of the day, North Koreans
would be attracted in the dream to put on a normal footing regarding their
relations with the United States.



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