Valbjørn comes from a background in political science – with a special focus on
the Middle East required through a Supplementary Degree in Middle Eastern Studies. He
is concerned with democratic theory and focus on empiricism (p.25-26), towards the
realist position and realist perspective on an event which was liberalist and comes from
the bottom-up with usage of “older tools rather than invent brand new ones” (p.33).

Danish political scientist- Morten Valbjørn with great solicitude, discusses in his article,
how it can be useful to revisit the frst era of of post-democratization. The author
emphasizes the internal division and the diferentiation of the issue of post-
democratization, illustrates to us, how democratization is being afected in the wake of
Arab Spring. He talks about authoritarianism versus liberal autocracy (p.29). It sets itself
an ambitious goal, namely, to strengthen the academic foundation of the scientifc
discipline of political science, which will be used in the study of societies in the Middle
East region in the period of political transformation.

Considering the issues of democratization in political science, the author strictly refers to
post-democratization in his text, defning as: “the need to get beyond the kind of focus
on ‘what ought to be’ prominent among ‘democracy-spotters’ in parts of Middle East
scholarship of the 1990s in favor of more attention to ‘what in fact is “. ( Valbjørn, 2012).

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He argues , that post-democratization can be analyzed on several levels, but the most
important is the objective understanding of the political structure in society – taking into
account its multiple socio-political diversity. Valbjørn is engaged in fnding the best
analytical instruments in political science concerning the way of implementing societies in
the Middle East into transformations. As a analytical tools Valbjørn is using comparative
studies, discussing the issue between the Arab Spring and the democratic transitions
initiated in the region in 1989 (p.28-29).

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