a.Creates Congress – House and Senate
3.Senate tries impeachment proceedings
a.President is Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces
b.President has appointment power for officers and judges
c.Has the power to negotiate treaties
1.Pocket veto – if President does not act in 10 days and Congress is not still in session, bill dies and must be reintroduced; if Congress is in session and President does not act in 10 days, bill becomes law
a.Federal judges are appointed for life
c.Article 78 – mandamus – order from a Court directing a government official, body or Court to do something it is required to do (done by trial court)
4.Article 4 – Powers of the States
a.US shall protect states from invasion
b.All powers not specifically granted to the US are granted to states
5.Article 5 – Congress (2/3) can propose amendments; 2/3 of state legislatures can call a convention to propose amendments.

6.Article 6 – Constitution is supreme law of the land
7.Article 7 -Specifies requirements for ratification of the Constitution
b.No law prohibiting free exercise of religion
e.Freedom to assemble (free association)
f.Right to petition government for a redress of grievances
9.Second Amendment – Freedom to bear arms
10.Third Amendment -No soldiers quartered in private homes
11.Fourth Amendment – No unreasonable search and seizure
a.Does not apply to the private sector (government only)
b.Does not say that a warrantless search is illegal, just unreasonable
c.Warrantless searches are legal in exigent circumstances; plain view
d.Privacy interests of the individual vs. states’ interests
d.No deprivation of life, liberty or property without due process of law
1.Procedural due process – speedy and public trial; right to attorney; presumption of innocence.

2.Substantive due process – laws that would deprive you of fundamental rights
e.No taking private property without compensation
a.Speedy and public trial by jury
d.Confrontation of witnesses and to compel witnesses
14.Seventh Amendment – Right to trial by jury in civil cases involving amounts over $25
15.Eighth Amendment – No excessive bail or fines, cruel and unusual punishment
16.Ninth Amendment – No law can infringe on other’s rights
17.Tenth Amendment – Powers not delegated to the US given to the states
18.Eleventh Amendment – The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.
19.Twelfth Amendment – Election of President and Vice President – changes Article 2 in that the race for President and Vice – President are different.

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20.Thirteenth Amendment – Outlaws slavery
21.Fourteenth Amendment – Dual citizenship
22.Fifteenth Amendment – Right to vote – blacks
23.Sixteenth Amendment – federal income tax
24.Seventeenth Amendment – The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.
25.Eighteenth Amendment – Prohibition
26.Nineteenth Amendment – Right to vote – women
27.Twentieth Amendment – The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin; The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day;
28.Twenty-First Amendment – repeals 18th
29.Twenty-Second Amendment – No more than 2 terms for president
30.Twenty-Third Amendment – DC’s electoral votes – = to the number of senators and representatives if was a state, but no more than the least populated state
31.Twenty-Fourth Amendment – No poll taxes
32.Twenty-Fifth Amendment – removal of President – Vice-President becomes President; new President nominates new Vice-President who is confirmed by a majority vote of both houses of Congress
33.Twenty-Sixth Amendment – SECTION 1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.
SECTION 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
34.Twenty-Seventh Amendment – No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.
1.asserted the Supreme Court’s power to review acts of Congress and invalidate those that conflict with the Constitution
2.Background Info. – President John Adams, a Federalist appointed several judgeships at the end of his term when Thomas Jefferson, a Republican was elected to office; Jefferson refused to deliver the commissions and as a result, William Marbury, one of the appointees sued James Madison, the secretary of state, and asked to Supreme Court to issue a write of mandamus to order the delivery of his commission
3.Opinion – John Marshall decided that although Madison should have delivered the commission to Marbury, but that the Court lacked the jurisdiction to issues writs of mandamus (must come from a court of original jurisdiction); a section of the Judiciary Act of 1789 granted the Court the power to issue writs of mandamus, the Court ruled that this exceeded the authority allotted the Court under Article III of the Constitution and was therefore null and void.

1.Background :1896 – Plessy, who insisted that he was 7/8 Caucasian and only 1/8 black refused to sit in a separate railcar from whites, he was arrested
2.Holding – the Supreme Court found that a Louisiana statute requiring separate intrastate railcars for whites and blacks neither abridge

Categories: Articles

The Constitutional Convention met in Philadelphia in May 1787 for the purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation. Almost immediately, delegates unanimously agreed on the need to replace the Articles with a new document that created a stronger central government. However, the delegates could agree on little else after that.
The crafting of the U.S. Constitution highlighted the intense conflicts that existed in 1787 between states large and small, between north and south, and between a variety of different political philosophies. But rather than defeating the process, the conflicts between delegates resulted in compromises that strengthened and improved the document. The process of compromise exhibited by the delegates was in many ways reflected in the flexibility the document allowed for continuous political debate, compromise, and adaptation.
The delegates based their initial design of government on political theories and their own experience with government under the Articles. The rest of the issues presented themselves in the form of debates over representation, the enumeration of slaves, the control of commerce, the protection of individual rights, and the amount of power granted to the people.
Delegates understood that the Articles of Confederation had been severely hampered by the inability to collect taxes and to enforce any of its laws. They also realized that without a strong central government to establish a line of credit, negotiate uniform trade laws, and guarantee domestic peace, they would gain no respect in the world arena and would become an easy target for invasion. The states had taken to petty arguments and jealous behaviors amongst themselves and showed no sign of mutual respect. Therefore, the power to tax, the power of enforcement of the law, and the creation of a national government that was superior to the government of the states became priorities at the Convention.

Categories: Articles


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