Infection Prevention and Control:
prevention and control is the learning of preventing infections and controlling
them. Infection prevention and control is important as it shows the importance
of good hygiene and the importance of patient safety. Infection prevention can
be used in hospitals, nurseries, schools, GP’s etc to ensure that service users
are in a safe environment. In this report I will be discussing four different
infections and the diseases that can be caused from each infection. Infections
can be transmitted and contracted. Transmitting is how the disease is passed on
e.g. a door handle. Contracted means how the disease is caught e.g. a bug bite.
Diseases and infections can be passed in two ways; directly and indirectly.
Direct contact is when a disease or infection is transmitted or contracted by
physical touch of two or more humans. Indirect contact is when there is no
contact between humans. Indirect contact would mainly be the transmission of
diseases by touching other surfaces or by vectors such as mosquitoes.
infections could also be waterborne, foodborne or vector borne. A waterborne illness is caused by drinking
contaminated water. The water could be contaminated by human or animal faeces.
The faces contain pathogenic microorganisms.
disease is an illness resulting from food that is contaminated.
borne disease is an infection transmitted by the bite of infected arthropod species.
These could be insects such as mosquitoes, ticks or blackflies.
four infections; Bacteria, Fungi, Virus, Parasite.
is a pathogen and can cause infections. A Bacterial infection can generally be
transmitted by touching other people. A
bacteria infection can cause many diseases.
One of the
diseases Bacteria can cause is Tetanus. Tetanus is a rare condition that is caused
when bacteria gets into a wound. If the bacteria gets into a wound, it can
quickly multiply and release toxins that affect nerves which can cause muscles
to spasm. Tetanus Bacteria can survive outside of the body for a long time. It
can be in some animal’s manure. The animals would normally be cows or horses.
Tetanus bacteria can also be found in soil. The bacteria can get into your body
through many ways including cuts, scrapes, burns, piercings injections and many
more. Tetanus is usually contracted rather than transmitted. This disease can
be contracted by soil, mud, dust or manure entering the skin through cracks and
Another disease that can be caused by Bacteria is
listeriosis. Listeriosis is an infection caused by eating contaminated food. Listeriosis
is a type of food poisoning. This
disease mainly affects new born babies, pregnant woman or the elderly with
impairment immune systems. Listeriosis can be caused by processed foods,
animals that carry the bacteria, contaminated meats or even dairy products. To
prevent listeriosis you can, prepare, cook and store foods safely and be
cautious when purchasing foods. Listeriosis can be contracted by eating
contaminated foods such as improperly processed deli meats or unpasteurised
Scarlet fever (Scarlatina) is an infection that causes
blotches and rashes. It is mostly common in children but can affect people of
any age. If you have had Scarlet fever before, you can not get it again. Scarlet
fever would usually clear up within a week. This disease can be transmitted
when the bacteria from sneezes or coughs are spread. Scarlet fever can be
contacted when the bacteria droplets from an infected persons cough or sneeze
are on a surface such as door handles, tables etc. If somebody touches the
contaminated area and the touches their mouth, eyes or nose this disease could
be transmitted to them.
The last disease that is caused by a Bacterial infection that
I will be talking about is bacterial pneumonia. This is a lung infection which
could occur due to bacteria that gets into the lungs and then multiplies. The
lungs’ air sacs would become inflamed. The sacs would end up being filled by
pus, fluid and cellular debris. Bacterial pneumonia could be spread by airborne
droplets from a cough or a sneeze of in infected person. This disease could be
transmitted by touching contaminated surfaces and areas.
Fungal infections can reproduce by spreading microscopic
spores. A fungal infection is an infection caused by different types of fungi. Mostly all fungal infections can cause itchy
skin due to the irritation it causes. Fungal infections are not all very
dangerous and can not cause a lot of harm to the body. There are many diseases
that a fungal infection can cause. Some diseases are as followed; Jock itch,
Athlete’s foot, Ringworm and even fungal nail infections.
One disease caused by a fungal infection is ringworm.
Ringworm is a common fungal infection also known as Tinea. Ringworm starts off
as a small patch of red, itchy skin which can soon spread rash and cover a
large amount of skin. Ringworm is caused by a particular type of fungi which is
called Dermatophytes. Dermatophytes usually feed off keratin. Keratin is a very
strong and a waterproof tissue that is found in the skin, hair and nails. This
is the reason why many fungal infections affect the scalp, skin and nails. Ringworm
spreads from one person to another. It can be contracted by direct contact with
somebody who already has ringworm. Alongside this, it can be contracted by
sharing things such as towels or garments. The disease, Ringworm can be
transmitted by contact with surfaces and objects that an infected person has
Another disease that can be caused by a fungal infection is Athlete’s
foot. Athlete’s foot is a contagious disease. Athlete’s foot causes the skin on
the feet to be cracked, dried, red, scaly or blistered. Athlete’s foot can be
caused by fungi growing and multiplying on the skin. Sharing socks, shoes or
towels can transmit the disease. It can also be spread by physical contact with
someone that has Athlete’s foot. Someone can develop Athlete’s foot by keeping
their feet wet for a long time. Athlete’s foot is directly transmitted.
Another example of a fungal disease is Aspergillus. This is a
type of fungus that can live in both, in and outdoors. It can be caused by
mould. The mould would build up to cause lung infections, allergic reactions
and some more infections in other parts of the body. Most people are naturally
immune and so do not develop Aspergillus. However, humans could get it if their
immune system is weak. The black mould could cause irritation to the eyes,
coughing, mucus in the throat and nose or throat rashes. Aspergillus is not
contagious. This means it can not be given to people from other people. Asthmatics
are the major target that have a chance of getting Aspergillus. Someone could
get Aspergillus if they inhale the tiny particles of Aspergillus. The most
common place where the mould is found is in dust, insulation material, leaves
and heating systems. However, if someone was to inhale particles of
Aspergillus, it would not be certain that they would now have the disease as
they would only get it if they already have a condition e.g. cystic fibrosis.
This would be indirect transmission.
Fungal Nail Infection is also a disease caused by a fungi
infection. This occurs when fungus attacks a toe or finger nail or the nail
bed. Fungi could attack nails through small cuts or through spaces between the
nail and the nail bed. If one is healthy, then the fungal nail infection may
not be painful, however, the nail could be damaged. There are mainly three things that could cause
Fungal nail infections. They are; yeast, moulds and different kinds of fungi. In
general, fungi grow best in warm, moist and dark places. A Fungal nail
infection can be contracted by walking barefoot in public, showers or pools or
sharing items with other people that may have the disease. Another thing that
could make somebody contract the disease is using the same nail clipper to
someone who has Fungal nail infection. This would be transmitted indirectly.
Viruses are small pathogens. They are a protein with genetic
material inside. There are many diseases that can be caused by the virus
infection. Some of these are Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Influenzas or Shingles.
I will be elaborating on Measles. Measles are a contagious
disease caused by a virus infection. Anyone can develop measles unless they
have been vaccinated. Usually, the infection can be cleared from seven to ten
days. When someone develops measles, the body will create an antibody to fight
the Measles off, this could also be the body creating resistance (immunity) to
prevent the body from getting measles again. Measles can cause serious issues
in the body. If someone has Measles, then they could result in getting
pneumonia or an infection in the brain. The infection in the brain would be
called encephalitis. When someone has Measles, the particles from their cough
or sneezes could spread the disease. Measles can be transmitted if the tiny
particles from an infected person contaminate a surface. One could contract Measles
when they touch the contaminated surface. Measles virus can survive on surfaces
for a few hours. Measles can also be contracted by breathing the droplets of
the virus into their body. This can be indirect transmission.
Mumps are another disease caused from a Virus infection.
Mumps is also a contagious disease caused by a virus infection. Mumps usually
cause swelling on the face, generally under the ears. Mumps can make someone
have a ‘hamster face’ shape. You could also get headaches, joint pains and high
temperatures because of Mumps. Mumps can be transmitted in the same way as a
cold or flu. The tiny droplets from the infected persons cough or sneeze can be
inhaled or picked up from other people or surfaces. MMR stands for Measles,
Mumps and Rubella. MMR can be prevented by MMR vaccines which are now very
common in the UK. This is an indirect transmission.
Rubella is also known as Measles, but Rubella is German
Measles. Rubella can cause many painful symptoms such as a rash which causes
spots, swollen glands, high temperatures and even could cause coughing. This
could usually last for a few days. Rubella can be transmitted by an infected
person coughing, sneezing or talking which would result in the droplets being
spread. This can be contracted in the same way as many other diseases. This can be contracted by touching
contaminated surfaces or inhaling the droplets of an infected person. This
disease can be transmitted indirectly.
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency system) is another disease
caused by a virus infection. AIDS is also known as the late stage of HIV. Someone
can get AIDS if their body is too weak and their immune system is too weak
which would cause them to get this disease. If someone is not treated, then
this disease could result in their death. HIV would get inside the blood cells
of people. It can be transmitted by spreading bodily fluids like sperm, vaginal
fluids or even vaginal fluids. A person could contract HIV when their mouth,
anus, vagina or tip of the penis get in contact with any bodily fluids of the
infected person. This could happen through unprotected sex, birth,
breastfeeding or even through any other sexual action such as oral sex. This
disease is generally transmitted directly.
A Parasite infection is a disease or infection that is caused
by a parasite. A parasite is an organism that lives on a host and feeds off the
host. Some examples of parasites are; fleas, tapeworms and barnacles. A parasite infection can cause many diseases.
Some of these being Malaria, Zoonosis, Heartworm, Food poisoning, Tropical
Another parasitic infection is a parasitic disease. A
parasitic disease could also be called parasitosis. Many parasites can cause
disease but not all of them do cause diseases. Parasitic diseases can affect
many things, this mainly includes living organisms which would be mammals or
even plants. Parasitic infections can spread in many ways. Some of these could
be through contaminate water, soil, food or blood. They can also be passed
through sexual contact. This would be passed directly.
I will be talking about Malaria. Malaria is a parasitic
infection. It is caused when one gets bitten by an infected Anopheles mosquito.
The infected mosquito would carry the plasmodium parasite. The plasmodium
parasite has many different forms. However, only five of these would have a
chance of causing malaria in humans. When a mosquito latches itself onto your
skin, it can bite you. This would result in a type of the plasmodium parasite
being released into the bloodstream. Due to this parasite being released into
the bloodstream, malaria is caused. Malaria would be contracted by the mosquito
as it carries the plasmodium parasite. It would be transmitted to a person once
the person gets bitten. The person would then take the parasite through their
bloodstream which would cause the actual malaria disease. This would be
Zoonosis is another disease that would be caused by a
parasitic infection. Zoonosis is an infectious disease that can be transmitted
to humans by animals. Generally, the animals would be vertebrates. Vertebrates
are animals that have backbones. Examples of vertebrates would be mammals such
as cows, elephants, rabbits, baboons etc. Zoonosis is a type of disease. Ebola
and salmonellosis are zoonoses. A cow or a pig could be infected with parasites
such as Cryptosporidium or something like Trichinella. If somebody drinks water
or eats food accidentally that is contaminated by the stool of an animal, they
could end up with cryptosporidiosis. People could then spread this around to
others. Zoonosis infections and diseases can be transmitted directly or
indirectly from animals to humans. This would mainly be contracted hen a human
eats or drinks something that is contaminated by an infected animal. This
transmission would be indirect.
The last parasitic disease that I will be talking about is
filariasis. Filariasis is a disease caused by a parasitic infection. This is a
disease caused by an infection through roundworms which are a type of
Filarioidea. Filariasis is transmitted when a mosquito bites somebody who has
lymphatic filariasis. The microscopic worms from the person’s blood would
infect the mosquito. When the mosquito bites somebody else, the filariasis
would be transmitted. Filariasis would be contracted when an infected mosquito
bites a person who isn’t infected. The mosquito bite would allow the
microscopic worms to go into the blood of an uninfected person and they would
soon get infected. This is indirect transmission.
Factors that affect someone from getting diseases and
Climate change can be a factor that affects the transmission
and contraction of diseases. Examples of climate change are increasing and
decreasing temperature, heavy downpours, extreme weather, sea levels rising or
even severe storms. This is because wet and humid weather conditions can
attract some parasites. Some parasites can be attracted by humid conditions.
Temperature rise, and rainfall increase could also affect the production of
some parasites. This is a big factor of disease and infections. Climate
conditions can generally affect and cause epidemic diseases.
Water supply can cause diseases and infections to spread. If
there is no safe and clean water, then one may be prone to diseases and
infections. This is because water can be contaminated and carry disease with
it. Water can be contaminated with many things such as stool, urine, soil, etc.
Drinking unclean and unsafe water can cause death. A clean water supply is
needed to maintain good health. Some diseases that can be caused by unsafe
water are; Cholera, Typhoid disease, Malaria, Guinea worm disease etc. This can also be caused by poverty. When someone is in the state of poverty, they may
not be able to afford or get clean water which can cause infections and
Bodily fluids can spread diseases and infections. If someone
has a disease (such as HIV) and they spread the disease through any type of
body fluid (sperm, vaginal fluids, breastmilk or even urine). Some diseases that can be transmitted by
bodily fluids are cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, HIV, AIDS, hepatitis B and
even glandular fevers. These can be sometimes and mostly will be called STDs
(sexually transmitted diseases).
Somebody’s location could affect them and if they have
diseases and infections. If somebody is living in a small house with many other
people, then they could be prone to get diseases. This would be because of the
build up of mould, especially in winter. Furthermore, many people living in one
small house could spread diseases very easily too.
Sanitation is an important factor that can affect someone. If
someone has poor sanitation, this means that they do not wash themselves
regularly, they do not clean themselves nor wash their hands properly. There is
a method to wash your hands which takes away most of the bacteria on your
hands. The bacteria will only go if the method is followed step to step.
Usually, the method is followed in hospitals, GP’s, nurseries and many other
health and social care settings.
Health care can also affect someone from getting infections
and diseases. This is because some countries have good hospitals and health
care systems which would keep up to date with people’s health, an example of
this is in the UK. In the UK, flu vaccinations are given to prevent people from
getting the flu. This may not be available in other countries.
The last factor that I will be talking about is someone’s
immune system. If somebody’s immune system is weak, then they can be prone to
diseases and infections and could get them. However, someone with a strong
immune system would be stronger and would not get diseases and infections as
easily as someone with a low immune system. Furthermore, when someone with a
strong immune system gets a disease, their body would be able to create
antibodies and protect them from the disease.
Generally, infections can be caused by many things. Some of
these could be through a weak immune system, living in a country that is prone
to cause diseases and infections and through poor hygiene. Also, if an infected
patient is not kept isolated from uninfected patients then infections can be transmitted.
Other ways in which infections can be transmitted are by accidentally coughing
or sneezing on someone or touching surfaces that are contaminated. Infections
and diseases can also be waterborne, vector borne or even airborne. These types
of transmission are explained previously in the report. Diseases can be
contracted by an uninfected person touching an infected person or a
contaminated surface. Also, they could be contracted by eating or drinking food
or water that is contaminated by faeces, urine or stool.
Overall, in this report I have discussed four different
infections and the diseases that can be caused from them. I have also spoken
about the different factors that can influence someone from contracting a
disease or an infection. Alongside that, I have spoken about potential ways
that infections can be caused or transmitted and how diseases can be
contracted. Lastly, I have spoken about the different types of diseases and
infections e.g. waterborne.