Total Quality Management

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Dr Deming held that by adopting appropriate principles of management organizations can increase quality as cost decreases. Total Quality Management (TQM) implementation process as encapsulated in the Deming model or PDSA cycle are therefore: “plan”, “do”, “study (check)” and “act” (Robinson 45).

This is a problem solving process that has been adopted successfully, by many organizations in most leading economies of the world. The model is a means to an end of improving quality of success at the lowest cost possible, while the process itself is continuously applied for continuous improvement in quality management.

The ‘plan’ step is where both long-term and short-term objectives are set and evaluated. An existing plan has to be reviewed and improvement planned. The organization situation is kept in mind as its goals, objectives, requirement and vision as well as its mission.

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In the step ‘do’, the new plan is introduced and taught to concerned stakeholders. There is transformation from the former order to the new order thus reviewing of policies, procedures as well as the organizational structures, is indispensable. One needs to be careful enough for effective and successful adoption of the plan.

Then this leads to the ‘study’ step where the new situation is checked, scrutinized, evaluated and analyzed. Any need for re-organization and improvement is noted in order to be addressed in the next step. In the ‘act’ step issues that arose in execution stage are addressed. The main aim is to maintain or improve the newly executed plan. Improvement is a continuous process and one has to keep on refining the plan to end up with a continuous improvement process.

Total quality management implementation within a healthcare organization should be an open-ended scheme. Deming model can be effectively applied to save time, life, and foster patient’s confidence and loyalty at the least effort and cost possible.

In the case of a healthcare organization, you start by evaluating an existing plan that a patient follows from the emergency room to the admission ward. The process conventionally involves reception and enquiry where possible, registration, treatment or first aid and admission.

The shorter and effective the process is, the better. While all the components of the process are important, the stakeholders are supposed to carry it as a system. The plan for improvement is made on the personnel at each stage while incorporating time saving mechanisms. The new plan should be based on observation, interviews and information from the former plan.

In the ‘do’ step the new plan is applied. The new plan is studied in practical real situation then those involved are trained so that they incorporate it in their daily routine. Deming model implementation is anchored in the fact that experience increases with effectiveness. So decline in performance is expected in the initial stages of implementation.

Afterwards, as the staff gets used to the new plan, performance will improve. In the ‘study’ stage, the new situation is checked to determine whether improvements can be done to maximize the effectiveness of the plan.

This will include incorporating some stages or doing away with others. This leads to the ‘Act’ stage where all issues needing improvement are addressed. Most challenges arising in execution stage will be addressed in a bid to decide whether to maintain the newly executed plan as it is or improve it further.

The end of the process in many cases poses many formative anomalies so that re- visiting the whole cycle is inevitable. The process must at least: reduce time and space, provide quality services, foster patients’ loyalty and confidence and motivate staff.

Deming based PDSA model on the belief that Knowledge and skills are limited but are always in a state of becoming or making (Robinson 48). His model therefore is a cyclic search of effectiveness and improvement.

If a patient from an accident were brought, the plan’s process used in receiving, treating or administering the first aid procedures as per his or her and then admit the patient. In the process all difficulties will be noted, new effective steps incorporated and others abandoned.

The plan will be flexible enough to cater for special needs or apply differently to patients with regard to severity of the case. Finally the process evaluation with the stakeholders (Healthcare providers) and the patients will be done to find out whether changes can be made. The key to total quality management in this case would be to achieve a “continual improvement” that sees a health care provision not as separate steps but as a system as Dr. Deming envisioned (Robinson 48).

Work cited

Robinson, Paula. “Master the steps to performance improvement.” Nursing Management 35.5 (2004): 45-48. Print.

Categories: Management

TQM another program it is important to

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A new type of structure is being used in many organizations today. That structure is labeled Total Quality Management (TQM). This approach involves guaranteeing that an organization functions with a commitment to quality and continuous improvement in meeting its consumers needs. With any type of change there will always be a number of bumps in the road which slow down the process that can help a company increase the workers morale, production, profits and over all positive environment to conduct business. The pressures of the cutthroat market place has pushed companies backs against a wall and to compete on a global scale new ideas have to be explored. The purpose of a TQM program is to amplify the effectiveness of the organization. During an age of downsizing and restructuring, many American companies are determining that they must learn to manage more effectively.
The management is running on an older system, which adds to workers that call out more sick days and abuse the companies production procedure. Organizational problems decoding means that all members of an organization participate in cultivating a vision and improving the corporate cultures. In any change program you must comprehend where you are before you can chart a course of where you want to be. Therefore, before executing TQM, or another program it is important to add the total
value of the organization in terms of its current quality or performance class and to define the level of performance or quality you wish to achieve.

One will never achieve total output for any given input, but with simple steps that can add dollars to the bottom line with an increase of production one can get close. Organization diagnose contributes information which allows a faster reacting organization to emerge, one which can deal proactively with changing emphases. Organization examination is often mentioned as the most critical element in the TQM process. With this technique utilized a company can measure all aspects of its output in relation to the mass input. These all include external and internal inputs from the accountant to the delivery truck driver.
All members and service providers must be looked at so as to acquire a complete overall view of the performance of the given organization. The steps that a company takes towards Total Quality Management in the beginning only adds the real value of having such a new system in place. Organizations are transforming and will continue to do so in order to survive in this complex environment. Because change is occurring so rapidly, there is necessity for new ways to manage focusing on product quality and individual involvement. TQM is a type of an approach to managing work focusing on the evaluation of industry processes.

The development of a quality energized culture and the empowerment of employees, for this purpose of continuous improvement of products and philanthropies. Since TQM is a powerful new management technique requiring absolute employee participation, the first step is a climatic change in corporate culture. Any successful adjustment in corporate culture will depend upon the active consultation and involvement
of the management team. An important component in developing a high performance organization is the identification of areas for improvement or concerns. Total quality management has been defined as the guidance of activities involving improving the quality of the organizations product or service. TQM involves moving toward collective excellence by integrating the desires of individuals for growth and development with organizational goals.
TQM is a philosophy and a set of guiding standards for continuous improvement. TQM applies human resources and analytical tools into management efforts, by providing planned, efficient approaches to improving the total organization, so that it is more customer oriented, quality conscious, adjustable and attentive. Total quality management has become a cardinal concern of management. Much of this attention was initially focused on the auto establishments, which experienced declining sales and increasing product disappointments.

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Companies in numerous other industries also became concerned. Some of these ideas were originally explored in this country in the 80s due to deficient sales and decrease in market share. Both of these can denote death for even considerably large companies like General Motors. It was GM that characterized a major role in introducing TQM here with the Saturn car. GM decided that since they might lose some valuable market shares due to expansion in Japanese car sale, that they should study the extraordinary way that this old world culture seemed to put quality autos on the market. GM found that the Japanese had less middle management and more teams of employees that were self-governed. The teams were responsible for the perfection of the products that were made, instead of having quality control inspectors. The teams were given the authority to hire and fire its members. With this innovative knowledge, GM tried an experiment for GM to use and harvest some of the inspirations so as to enhance its other factories. Thus, the total quality management system was subsequently made mainstream with it creeping into all types of organizations.

There are several widely recognized key characteristics of TQM systems. First for a system to be TQM it has to be organization wide. Which determines that the production line is a natural and obvious place to increase quality but it also takes place in all areas of the business. This includes the superior CEO to the mailroom clerk. Second, the top managers must visibly adhere the new TQM control system. If any of the workers were to contemplate that the upper management was not taking the new guidelines seriously then you are more inclined to have chaos. To help stop people from causing too many problems, a simple type of reward system is put in place to recognize team associates and for the insurance that there will be continued support. Third, everyone in the organization has a customer, which could be the adjacent guy on the production line or remote to the organization. This is a crafty way to get the personnel enthusiastic about pleasing the guidelines of the company. Forth, doing the job expectations right the first time is important. Instead of relying on product inspection, the employee should be responsible for the quality of the product that is conceived. Finally, the most important aspect for an organization is to let the team members know that each one of them is respected and valued. This again goes for the entire chain, from the internal employees to the external vendors and suppliers.
More and more organizations are concluding that employees are no longer satisfied with simply filling a slot in the organization chart. Everyone in the organization has a voice and is allowed to speak on all issues. Todays managers are being challenged to provide leadership in new and changing environments. Customers, competitors, employees, and stockholders are all placing anxieties on management for innovation and change at a rapid pace. Change is a scorning process. Every organization exists in an endless state of adapting to change. External competitive forces usually cause downsizing changes, whereas other changes to work operations emerge as a result of shifting forces within the organization. Many management theorists feel that authoritarian or political forces, adapting to this increasing rate of change and therefore become reactive organizations reacting drastically after problems come to light. The GM company for example, continues to focus on quality, cycle time reduction, and teamwork in a change process that most companies can only try to emulate. Ten years after initiating a quality change program, TQM is still being used to improve the company.
The Saturn car company is a continued success in the auto industry. It should be noted that Saturn has yet to pull in an over all profit, but the high sales has GM looking at the car company in hindsight. GM has taken what it has learned from Saturn and applied it to the other lines of cars. How can you measure the value of such information? So because of this new approach the TQM company lives on as a modern day experiment, which by todays terms is not so experimental. GM strategy to meet these changing forces is termed Total Quality Management (TQM). Total Quality Management may be defined as an organizational strategy of commitment to improving customer satisfaction by developing techniques to carefully administer output quality. TQM is not so much a special technique, as it is an aspect of a reinvented corporate culture with a healthy commitment to improving quality in all organizational approaches.
Beecroft, GD (1999) The role of quality in strategic management Decisions, v37 i6
Heapy, MS. And Gruska, GF. (1995) The Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award- A Yardstick for Quality Growth Addison Wesley Publishing Company
Kuger, V. (1999) Towards a European definition of TQM- a historical review The TQM Magazine v11 n4 p257
Marsh, J. (1996) The Quality Toolkit- a practical resource for making TQM happen

Categories: Corporate Culture

Sigtek and decline in the profit margin was

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Sigtek is a small telecommunications company located in the New England region. Sigtek was founded by three Western Electric veterans to produce circuit boards for signal handling which it sold to AT&T and other long-distance providers. Sigtek had been acquired by a large technology company for about 10 years. The company practiced a laissez faire approach in managing Sigtek. Prior to their acquisition by Telwork, the profit margin sky-rocketed to nearly $100 million with 1,000 employees only to collapse to about 800 employees and $40 million a couple years after.

The rapid increase and decline in the profit margin was due to the deconsolidation of long-distance providers, mainly AT&T, and the influx of startup switch board manufacturers, due to easy entry into the market niche. In November of the year Telwork took over operations, they began formulating a Total Quality program based on a highly acclaimed model not only to improve product quality and encourage management practices, but also to gather all of the scattered and diverse companies they owned under a single corporate umbrella.

In April, they were ready to train instructors for the Total Quality program; John Smithers would be the candidate for Sigtek. Smithers was uneasy about taking on an instructor role due to the separation he had felt in the company, the differing corporate culture between his boss, Cross and Patricof. Smithers was more than adequate to assume the role, his experience with small computer start-up companies and his own work within the company were examples of his strong management abilities.

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There were multiple barriers along the way for the Total Quality management program. After attempting to make the program a success Smithers stated, “the writing is on the wall” he asked to stop teaching but management would not allow this to happen because he was “too valuable and had too many followers to lose. ” Smithers found himself updating his resume in December of that year, lamenting, “I got into an organization where I thought I could accomplish something, I found a good mentor, but it didn’t work. ” He asks, “Could I have done something different? The problems that Sigtek face as a corporation, having been bought by Telwork, are largely centered on management and their approach as well as the one used to implement the quality program. With the merging of such companies, blending corporate culture and creating cohesion should be a priority, which management failed to do. The implementation of such a plan by Murphy and Smithers failed for various reasons including the lack of a unified corporate culture and cohesion from the management department as a whole.

As explained in the case, management perceived problems such as the components bouncing out of the boards as insignificant and focused on apparently more important issues. Failure to successfully implement the quality program led to a downward spiral resulting in an “untrusting environment. ” Furthermore, the “cookie cutter program” was implemented to a team that had not yet been formed. Changing corporate culture and, in addition, creating a cohesive workforce in that culture is a gradual process that cannot be accomplished immediately through classes.

The integration of initiatives in the quality program at Sigtek requires a cultural assessment by managers and a high degree of leadership in the organization, which Smithers and Murphy lacked. In short, the company was not ready to manage organizational change. There is a deep organizational gulf which divides the company – specifically between the Engineering and Manufacturing operations. Furthermore, the groups are also physically divided by a long hallway between two separate buildings. Smithers feared the deep divide would make any changes very difficult.

Additionally, Richard Patricof only promoted those who parroted his beliefs or rarely questioned him. It appeared that Patricof was also looking for personal gain and not really interested in those below him. Smithers attempted to implement the Top Quality Program, while initial feedback was positive, management did not follow up with plans which led to workers eventually pushing back, morale of the company declined. Smithers became caught in the middle and felt that he had compromised his plans to truly help employees.

One of the main complications was that workers on the line understood the Top Quality plans but the managers did not. Therefore, credibility became a problem for management and employees began to not rely on anything being improved. There were mixed messages from the executives, change was slow and cumbersome and there never seemed to be a unified plan. Due to this, buy-in was never achieved. Organizational change is a necessary process in growing a company’s potential and reach. However, change is often met by resistance.

Recommendations for Sigtek would be to employ an Organizational Change model – such as Kotter’s 8-Step Model. Step One: Create Urgency – For change to happen, it helps if the whole company really wants it. Develop a sense of urgency around the need for change. This may help you spark the initial motivation to get things moving. Step Two: Form a Powerful Coalition – Convince people that change is necessary. This often takes strong leadership and visible support from key people within your organization. Managing change isn’t enough – you have to lead it.

Step Three: Create a Vision for Change – When you first start thinking about change, there will probably be many great ideas and solutions floating around. Link these concepts to an overall vision that people can grasp easily and remember. Step Four: Communicate the Vision – What you do with your vision after you create it will determine your success. Your message will probably have strong competition from other day-to-day communications within the company, so you need to communicate it frequently and powerfully, and embed it within everything that you do.

Step Five: Remove Obstacles – If you follow these steps and reach this point in the change process, you’ve been talking about your vision and building buy-in from all levels of the organization. Hopefully, your staff wants to get busy and achieve the benefits that you’ve been promoting. Step Six: Create Short-term Wins – Nothing motivates more than success. Give your company a taste of victory early in the change process. Within a short time frame (this could be a month or a year, depending on the type of change), you’ll want to have results that your staff can see.

Without this, critics and negative thinkers might hurt your progress. Step Seven: Build on the Change – Kotter argues that many change projects fail because victory is declared too early. Real change runs deep. Quick wins are only the beginning of what needs to be done to achieve long-term change. Step Eight: Anchor the Changes in Corporate Culture – Finally, to make any change stick, it should become part of the core of your organization. Your corporate culture often determines what gets done, so the values behind your vision must show in day-to-day work. Mind Tools, 2011) Sigtek did not implement a proper organizational change model and could have benefitted from many of Kotter’s tactics, especially “Removing Obstacles. ” The purpose of the Total Quality Program should have been to provide product and service quality better than all competitors, the lowest-cost quality producer, to pursue quality improvement, manage through leadership, personally involve all employees through participative activity, and to be comprised of employees that approach the job fearlessly. However, they only achieved pure failure.

Telework was implementing the Total Quality program within a small organization as Sigtek and producing a program that fosters lies to employees. By separating the engineering and operations both departments clash, due to lack of performance management Instead, Sigtek should focus on positive reinforcement, allow the employees to stress their concerns to the higher management personnel. Sigtek should not lean on a rapid change in performance management to increase productivity and morale and should not force a program on employees, without them having the benefit of understanding the mission of the organization or program.

Appointing a lead, where both sides can come to an agreement would be more beneficial and introducing a program that integrates both department to work together, dissolves future issues with employees would be received more positively. In the end, truth outweighs private practices and job design and performance management are placed under one umbrella to influence positive results in employee relations and job results. ——————————————– [ 1 ]. Mind Tools. (2011). Mind Tools. Retrieved October 4, 2011, from Kotter’s 8-Step Change Model: http://www. mindtools. com/pages/article/newPPM_82. htm

Categories: Corporate Culture


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