(4) with minimum effort and maximum effectiveness

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(4) Scalar Principle:The line of authority from the top position in an institution to every subordinate position should be clear so as to make decision-making and communication processes effective. (5) Delegation:Each manager (supervisor, heads of departments or vice-principals) should be assigned adequate authority to enable him/her to achieve the results expected of him/her.

(6) Absoluteness of Responsibility:No superior can escape responsibility for the institutional activities of his/her subordinates. (7) Unity of Command:Each subordinate should be accountable to only one single superior or boss. It clarifies authority-responsibility relationship. No subordinate should have more than one boss. (8) Balance:There should be a reasonable balance in the size of various departments/sections/classes/divisions, between standardization of procedures and flexibility and between centralization and decentralization.

(9) Flexibility:An organization should have a built-in device to accommodate environmental changes and to facilitate growth and expansion without disturbance. (10) Definiteness:Each activity and department must contribute to the aims of an institution with minimum effort and maximum effectiveness and efficiency. (11) Exception Principle:Decisions within the authority competence of an individual manager should be taken by him and should be referred upwards in the organizational structure only if the matter not covered by his assigned responsibility and authority.

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