Through the allegory of the cave in Republic Seven, Socrates demonstrated
that the goal of education is to drag the man as far outside of the cave as
possible. This allows the man to distinguish the different stages on the
divided line. In the Republic Seven
Socrates states, “… education is not what some people boastfully declare it to
be. They presumably say they can put knowledge into souls that lack it. As if
they could put sight into blind eyes.” (Republic Seven Pg. 209, 518b). This
shows that education shouldn’t just be putting knowledge into the soul, but at
the soul turning into right desires. The main point of the metaphor given by
Socrates is to explain that there are many ways to interpret things and each
have its own meaning behind it. Like in the Euthyphro,
Socrates keeps asking Euthyphro to redefine holiness in different ways.
However, when Euthyphro is unable to justify his meaning of holiness, it shows
that teaching isn’t simply just giving right answers, but also leading the
student to be able to justify the answer and repeat them. Socrates is seen
leading Euthyphro through his own reasoning and letting him sort things out
himself. In the Euthyphro, Socrates
says “So we must examine again from the beginning what the pious is, since I
won’t willingly give up until I learn this.” (Euthyphro Pg. 62, 15d). Socrates,
the teacher, is asking Euthyphro, the student, to teach him. This allows for a
better understanding for Euthyphro. As for the speech that was given during his
trial, Socrates was by no means giving an apology. He was using this outlet to
express his wisdom and his ignorance. He also took the opportunity to
interrogate those who thought were wise. From this he concluded, he truly is
the wisest because he does not think he knows what he does no know. He notices
that those who thought were wise in their own field also thought highly of
themselves in many other fields and this goes against Socrates belief in
education. It’s not just about giving out information, but also having a full
grasp of the idea and being able to recite it repeatedly. This is how Socrates
was able to demonstrate his knowledge on the concept of education through the Apology and the Euthyphro.

 

In the first book of the Ethics, Aristotle mentions that “one
swallow does not make a spring.” This means that a moment of happiness doesn’t
give a person a life time of happiness. In Book
One of Nicomachean Ethics,
Aristotle talks about the good and how humans aim for what is considered good.
Also, it states that happiness is the supreme good and that there are different
ways the people define achieving happiness. In Book One Aristotle states, “… for there are three favored lives-
the lives of gratification, of political activity, and, third, of study.”
(Nicomachean Ethics Pg. 312, Book 4). Happiness is considered the supreme good
because happiness is considered as a whole and not a brief moment of it. Being
able to perform well in a function doesn’t define happiness but the person’s
life need to be examined as a whole to see if they have achieved happiness or
not. In Book Two, Aristotle talks
about virtue and how it pertains to happiness because Aristotle calls happiness
an activity, how we act. Virtue is a person’s inherent qualities. So, virtue is
the act that such a way leads a happy life. Without virtue, happiness cannot be
guaranteed. Aristotle also mentions that virtue is something that is learned
through habit. As stated, “Thus the virtues arise in us neither by nature nor
against nature. Rather, we are y nature able to acquire them, and reach put
complete perfection through habit.” (Nicomachean Ethics Pg. 317, Book 2). In Book Ten, Aristotle talks about how pleasure
is another quality needed to achieve happiness. Pleasure is not a process and
doesn’t need to be placed in through a period of time but needs to be
accompanied with our senses or mind when they are working at their best.
Pleasure allows for the activities that the person to be doing to be better and
perfected, thus making it an essential part of a person’s life. It is also
believed that pleasure is mixed with happiness since all activities can be
fulfilled with both. Aristotle explains, “We think pleasure must be mixed into
happiness; and it is agreed that the activity expressing wisdom is the pleasant
of the activities expressing virtue.” (Nicomachean Ethics Pg. 339, Book 10). For
Aristotle, happiness is our highest goal and it’s achieved with the ideas of
the good, virtue, and pleasure as mentioned in Book One, Two, and Ten.

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