This stronger the iridescent colors of male butterfly

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         This study researched the importance
of bright, colorful, and iridescent dorsal wings in the mating patterns of Hypolimnas bolina, a species of
butterfly in which the male sex possesses bright, blue, and iridescent wings. The
researcher hypothesized that male butterflies possess conspicuous wing
ornamentation because of female mating preferences, which encourages the
exaggeration of these physical characteristics.

         The researcher instigated three
experiments that all demonstrated that female butterflies prefer to mate with
male butterflies of conspicuous-colored wings. In the first experiment, the
control male butterflies were 68% more likely to mate than the lab-reared
treatment males with blacked-out wings. This number increased to 69% in the
second experiment, which was conducted on free-flying males. In the third
experiment, the treatment males’ bright, iridescent wings were dimmed down
rather than fully blacked out, yet the control group was still 66% more likely
to mate.

the first two experiments taking place in different environments, both yielded
similar results, which demonstrate that the color of male butterflies’ dorsal
wings is vital to successful mating. Similarly, the third experiment
demonstrated that a reduction in the brightness of butterfly wings also
produced similar results to the first two experiments using blacked-out wings, which suggests
that there is a range of brightness in male butterflies’ dorsal wings that pass
the female butterflies’ threshold of acceptance for this trait. Thus, these conclusions
provide meaningful explanations for why male butterflies exhibit such costly
exaggerations to their wing ornamentation.

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         This study demonstrates that the
stronger the iridescent colors of male butterfly wings, the higher the chances
of their successful mating, which I will incorporate into my GEM as evidence of
the influence that male wing ornamentation and female preference have on mating































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