This concerned with the structuring of an investigation

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This part comprises of the
examination strategy and the methodology utilized in the sourcing, gathering,
investigation and translation of information that will be required for look
into the research. Prior to a decent research work should be possible there is
requirement for the researcher to state unmistakably the strategies and
methodology received in social affair his actualities. It is likewise
applicable to clarify the populace that is include in the exploration work and
the portrayal received in gathering the information got about the effect of
Information Technology innovation on bookkeeping framework and its impact on
SMEs.

3.1  RESEARCH DESIGN

According to Ojo (2003), “research
design is concerned with the structuring of an investigation for the purpose of
identifying the relevant variables and their relationships to one another”.

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The research design refers to the
general methodology that you incorporate the distinctive parts of the study in
a rational and logical way, in this manner, guaranteeing you will adequately
address the research problem; it constitutes the outline for the gathering,
estimation, and analysis of data. Research problem decides the kind of outline
you should utilize, not the other way around, De vaus (2001).

The purpose of a research design is
to provide answers to research questions or problems Ebohon, (2007). It is a
valuable device, which fills in as a guide amid the data accumulation and
analysis processes. The research is based on the analysis of information given
in the questionnaire shared to some selected individuals to accumulate enough
data to derive at a sensible conclusion toward the finish of the research.

3.2  POPULATION OF THE STUDY

The population of this study is all
the individuals operating on a Small and Medium scale Enterprises in Nigeria.

3.3
SAMPLE SIZE AND SAMPLE TECHNIQUE

Sample techniques are the
methodologies connected by analysts amid the measurable testing process. The
sample size of this research work is individuals operating on a Small and Medium
Enterprises scale in Nigeria. The researcher used the non-probability sampling
technique which is the convenience or accidental method of sampling. Yard
sampling can be used in the sample size determination. Yard formula is a
statistical formula that deals with the application of normal approximation
with 95% level of confidence and 5% of terror tolerance. The formula is shown
below:

n =

Where:

n= Sample size.

N= population.

a2 =level of significance.

The yards formula cannot be used in this
research because the population size is unknown. Therefore, we adopt the
formula posed by Avwokeni (1999, 2003). This formula helps us to determine the
sample size for the research when the population is unknown. The formula is
shown below:

Where:  n= Sample size

 = Margin of sampling
error which is taken as 0.05

n = 100 respondents

3.4
DATA GATHERING METHOD

The data collection method used by
the researcher is the survey research method. Survey
research is defined as “the collection of information from a sample of
individuals through their responses to questions” Check & Schutt
(2012). Survey research may utilize an assortment of data accumulation
techniques with the most well-known being questionnaires and interviews. In the
cause of this study the gathering tool that will be used is questionnaire.

3.4.1
SOURCES OF DATA

The data used for this
research comprises both primary and secondary data. They include:

Primary
Data

Primary data is the
information that you gather particularly with the end goal of your research
project. An advantage of primary data is that it is particularly customized to
your research needs. A disadvantage is that it is costly to get. The primary
source of data was generated through administration of questionnaire. The use
of questionnaire was adopted because of the ease of dissemination, collection
and analysis.

Secondary
Data

Secondary data was obtained
from published documents such as journals, articles, textbooks and past
projects. According to Ojo (2005), Secondary data “refers to data which have
been gathered earlier for some other purpose”. The secondary sources of data used
by the researcher to compliment the primary sources include articles, journals,
textbooks, newspapers and past project of students.

3.5  RESEARCH INSTRUMENT AND
DESIGN

The instrument used for
collecting data for the purpose of this research is the questionnaire.
Questionnaire is the list of a research or study questions asked to
respondents, and intended to extract particular data. It fills four fundamental
needs: to gather the fitting information, make information equivalent and
manageable to analysis, limit inclination in figuring and making inquiry, and
to make questions connecting with and changed.

3.5.1 DESCRIPTION OF
QUESTIONNAIRE

The questionnaire was
prepared and constructed to give precise and concise answer relevant to the
study through close-ended or structured questions. They contain personal and
non-personal data. The questions contained in the questionnaire were derived
from the research questions, research objectives, the hypothesis for testing,
and the statement of research problem. The questionnaire begins with
introduction, personal characteristic of the respondents, and substantive
questions. The response categories were restricted to closed response (yes or
no). The tick-box questions were just yes or no.

3.6  VALIDITY  AND RELIABILITY OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENT AND
DESIGN

Validity refers to the
credibility or trustworthiness of the research. Also, it is the degree to which
an idea, conclusion or estimation is all around established and compares
precisely to this present reality. The validity test utilized for this
exploration is the substance validity. Content validity suggests that the
substance of the scale relates to the substance of the state of mind framework
and that they are sufficiently thorough to cover the full range of the subject
matter. Content validity essentially makes the inquiry; is the substance of the
research test or measure significant to the characteristic being measured,
Osuagwu (2006).

Reliability refers to the repeatability of
discoveries. It the degree to which the outcome of a measurement, calculation,
or specification can be depended on to be accurate. The instrument of
measurement (questionnaire) can be administered through personal contact, mail,
postal services or other means. For the purpose of this study, personal contact
method will be used.

Cronbach alpha’s reliability test was used
here, the formula for this test is:

k/(k-1)*1-(sum of item variances/total
scale variance

Where:

K= number of items

In this test, the co-efficient ranges from 0
to 1, the higher the co-efficient the higher the reliability of the generated
scale. If the reliability coefficient is more than 70% then the research
instrument is reliable.

3.7  DATA ANALYSIS METHOD

The data collected for this
research work will be analyzed with the aid of manual and electronic
application such as the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).
Analysis will be carried out with major use of tables, bar charts, mean, median
and standard deviation for further interpretation of data employed in the
course of the study.

The statistical parametric test to be used
for the analysis of data is regression. This is because it is an impact
measuring statistic; it is used to determine the effect of a dependent variable
(Computerized Accounting System) on the independent variable (performance on
SMEs).  Regression analysis is a set of statistical processes for estimating the relationships
among variables. It includes many techniques for modeling and analyzing several
variables, when the focus is on the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent
variables.

The Assumptions underlying the use or
regression includes:

1.      
The sample is
representative of the population for the inference prediction.

2.      
The error is a random variable with
a mean of zero conditional on the explanatory variables.

3.      
The independent
variables are measured with no error.

4.      
The independent
variables are linearly independent,
i.e. it is not possible to express any predictor as a linear combination of the
others.

5.      
The errors are uncorrelated,
that is, the variance–covariance
matrix of the errors is diagonal and
each non-zero element is the variance of the error.

6.      
The variance of the
error is constant across observation. If not, weighted least squares or
other methods might instead be used.

The
linear regression equation is shown below:

   Y= a + bX

Where,

X
and Y are the variables.

B
= the slope of the regression line

A=
the intercept point of the regression line and the Yaxis.

N=
number of values or element

X=
first score

Y=
second score

?XY= sum of the product of first and
second scores

?X= sum of first scores

?Y= sum of second scores

?X2= sum of square first
scoresThis part comprises of the
examination strategy and the methodology utilized in the sourcing, gathering,
investigation and translation of information that will be required for look
into the research. Prior to a decent research work should be possible there is
requirement for the researcher to state unmistakably the strategies and
methodology received in social affair his actualities. It is likewise
applicable to clarify the populace that is include in the exploration work and
the portrayal received in gathering the information got about the effect of
Information Technology innovation on bookkeeping framework and its impact on
SMEs.

3.1  RESEARCH DESIGN

According to Ojo (2003), “research
design is concerned with the structuring of an investigation for the purpose of
identifying the relevant variables and their relationships to one another”.

The research design refers to the
general methodology that you incorporate the distinctive parts of the study in
a rational and logical way, in this manner, guaranteeing you will adequately
address the research problem; it constitutes the outline for the gathering,
estimation, and analysis of data. Research problem decides the kind of outline
you should utilize, not the other way around, De vaus (2001).

The purpose of a research design is
to provide answers to research questions or problems Ebohon, (2007). It is a
valuable device, which fills in as a guide amid the data accumulation and
analysis processes. The research is based on the analysis of information given
in the questionnaire shared to some selected individuals to accumulate enough
data to derive at a sensible conclusion toward the finish of the research.

3.2  POPULATION OF THE STUDY

The population of this study is all
the individuals operating on a Small and Medium scale Enterprises in Nigeria.

3.3
SAMPLE SIZE AND SAMPLE TECHNIQUE

Sample techniques are the
methodologies connected by analysts amid the measurable testing process. The
sample size of this research work is individuals operating on a Small and Medium
Enterprises scale in Nigeria. The researcher used the non-probability sampling
technique which is the convenience or accidental method of sampling. Yard
sampling can be used in the sample size determination. Yard formula is a
statistical formula that deals with the application of normal approximation
with 95% level of confidence and 5% of terror tolerance. The formula is shown
below:

n =

Where:

n= Sample size.

N= population.

a2 =level of significance.

The yards formula cannot be used in this
research because the population size is unknown. Therefore, we adopt the
formula posed by Avwokeni (1999, 2003). This formula helps us to determine the
sample size for the research when the population is unknown. The formula is
shown below:

Where:  n= Sample size

 = Margin of sampling
error which is taken as 0.05

n = 100 respondents

3.4
DATA GATHERING METHOD

The data collection method used by
the researcher is the survey research method. Survey
research is defined as “the collection of information from a sample of
individuals through their responses to questions” Check & Schutt
(2012). Survey research may utilize an assortment of data accumulation
techniques with the most well-known being questionnaires and interviews. In the
cause of this study the gathering tool that will be used is questionnaire.

3.4.1
SOURCES OF DATA

The data used for this
research comprises both primary and secondary data. They include:

Primary
Data

Primary data is the
information that you gather particularly with the end goal of your research
project. An advantage of primary data is that it is particularly customized to
your research needs. A disadvantage is that it is costly to get. The primary
source of data was generated through administration of questionnaire. The use
of questionnaire was adopted because of the ease of dissemination, collection
and analysis.

Secondary
Data

Secondary data was obtained
from published documents such as journals, articles, textbooks and past
projects. According to Ojo (2005), Secondary data “refers to data which have
been gathered earlier for some other purpose”. The secondary sources of data used
by the researcher to compliment the primary sources include articles, journals,
textbooks, newspapers and past project of students.

3.5  RESEARCH INSTRUMENT AND
DESIGN

The instrument used for
collecting data for the purpose of this research is the questionnaire.
Questionnaire is the list of a research or study questions asked to
respondents, and intended to extract particular data. It fills four fundamental
needs: to gather the fitting information, make information equivalent and
manageable to analysis, limit inclination in figuring and making inquiry, and
to make questions connecting with and changed.

3.5.1 DESCRIPTION OF
QUESTIONNAIRE

The questionnaire was
prepared and constructed to give precise and concise answer relevant to the
study through close-ended or structured questions. They contain personal and
non-personal data. The questions contained in the questionnaire were derived
from the research questions, research objectives, the hypothesis for testing,
and the statement of research problem. The questionnaire begins with
introduction, personal characteristic of the respondents, and substantive
questions. The response categories were restricted to closed response (yes or
no). The tick-box questions were just yes or no.

3.6  VALIDITY  AND RELIABILITY OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENT AND
DESIGN

Validity refers to the
credibility or trustworthiness of the research. Also, it is the degree to which
an idea, conclusion or estimation is all around established and compares
precisely to this present reality. The validity test utilized for this
exploration is the substance validity. Content validity suggests that the
substance of the scale relates to the substance of the state of mind framework
and that they are sufficiently thorough to cover the full range of the subject
matter. Content validity essentially makes the inquiry; is the substance of the
research test or measure significant to the characteristic being measured,
Osuagwu (2006).

Reliability refers to the repeatability of
discoveries. It the degree to which the outcome of a measurement, calculation,
or specification can be depended on to be accurate. The instrument of
measurement (questionnaire) can be administered through personal contact, mail,
postal services or other means. For the purpose of this study, personal contact
method will be used.

Cronbach alpha’s reliability test was used
here, the formula for this test is:

k/(k-1)*1-(sum of item variances/total
scale variance

Where:

K= number of items

In this test, the co-efficient ranges from 0
to 1, the higher the co-efficient the higher the reliability of the generated
scale. If the reliability coefficient is more than 70% then the research
instrument is reliable.

3.7  DATA ANALYSIS METHOD

The data collected for this
research work will be analyzed with the aid of manual and electronic
application such as the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).
Analysis will be carried out with major use of tables, bar charts, mean, median
and standard deviation for further interpretation of data employed in the
course of the study.

The statistical parametric test to be used
for the analysis of data is regression. This is because it is an impact
measuring statistic; it is used to determine the effect of a dependent variable
(Computerized Accounting System) on the independent variable (performance on
SMEs).  Regression analysis is a set of statistical processes for estimating the relationships
among variables. It includes many techniques for modeling and analyzing several
variables, when the focus is on the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent
variables.

The Assumptions underlying the use or
regression includes:

1.      
The sample is
representative of the population for the inference prediction.

2.      
The error is a random variable with
a mean of zero conditional on the explanatory variables.

3.      
The independent
variables are measured with no error.

4.      
The independent
variables are linearly independent,
i.e. it is not possible to express any predictor as a linear combination of the
others.

5.      
The errors are uncorrelated,
that is, the variance–covariance
matrix of the errors is diagonal and
each non-zero element is the variance of the error.

6.      
The variance of the
error is constant across observation. If not, weighted least squares or
other methods might instead be used.

The
linear regression equation is shown below:

   Y= a + bX

Where,

X
and Y are the variables.

B
= the slope of the regression line

A=
the intercept point of the regression line and the Yaxis.

N=
number of values or element

X=
first score

Y=
second score

?XY= sum of the product of first and
second scores

?X= sum of first scores

?Y= sum of second scores

?X2= sum of square first
scores

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