There country then switching from Catholic to Protestant
There were many reasons for the colonization of North America from new crops to economic growth and development for England, it was seen as a necessity to expand; promises of political and social advancement were two of the main reasons England could not stall its expansion. That, in addition to other European countries leading the way into exploring the new world England, could no longer wait to colonize the Americas. The first generally large ship of citizens didn’t set sail until September of 1620 and took two months to actually reach the shores of the proclaimed free land, which is a quite significant time compared to today’s travels (Gascoigne, 2001).With the English reformation beginning with King Henry viii England was in a volatile state with the country then switching from Catholic to Protestant and back for years to come the political side of England – being controlled by the church – was thrown askew (Norton, 2008). The main political powers found it to be necessary to expand its territories not only to lead better lives but to have more power over other countries (Cleary, n.d.). Other political reasons were to basically have more area to put naval ships to be able to defend the mainland and to acquire more land to put their armies on to protect the newly found colonies. The first ship to lead pilgrims to colonize the North American continent was the Mayflower, which landed somewhere around cape cod, but sailed until they found land they could build a village on (Norton, 2008). The citizens of the colony insisted on self-governing and creating a truly free land. The political motives – for all intents and purposes – were the biggest effect on citizens choosing to leave England, the people didn’t like the way they were being governed and pursued a truly free government. There was more of a social pressure to colonize than anything else; their surplus in population was more than they could tend to and they sought out colonization as a siphon for their surplus in citizens (Gascoigne, 2001).The quality of life in England was fairly poor so to increase production and morale in England they mostly sent the poor citizens and criminals to colonize the newly found land for them. In 1628 11 ships filled with over 700 people is sent to Massachusetts with a charter for England to trade with the colonies along with plenty of horses and cows (Gascoigne, 2001). The charter also declared the Massachusetts Bay Company was its own entity responsible for its own affairs. Boston was chosen to be the site of this new settlement and two years later was claimed to be the capital of the colony, however, the towns of Massachusetts soon become like city-states governing themselves through the church, which is closer to an oligarchy more than a democracy regardless of the fact that men of the church had the right to vote. This system, though not a democracy proved to work because the colony had high literacy rates and raised the standard of education; Harvard University was actually founded in 1636 (Gascoigne, 2001). With all the promises of freedom and the opportunity to get a break from England’s tyranny more than 20,000 settlers arrived in Massachusetts by 1640. Economic Systems Social CharacteristicsPolitical SystemsMassachusetts Bay Exported fish, lumber and other goods to England, but beef was their main source of income, people actually falsely accused others of crimes just so they could profit off of their cows (Brooks, 2015). Religion was a part of society, Puritans who escaped England to avoid persecution ended up persecuting the Quakers which led to tension between those who wanted religious freedom and those who only wanted to be around like-minded people (Brooks, 2015) Religion was also a huge part of politics in the Massachusetts Bay colony, only the men of the church were allowed to participate in politics (Brooks, 2015).Virginia The tobacco plant boosted the economy, however, it was very unstable because sometimes there would be unexpectedly high yields that would lower the price of the product (Wolfe, 2017). Religion was a part of the society in the Virginia colony, the church of England established a Christian protestant type of religion, the taxes paid by the people paid for the church and citizens were required to go to services (Wolfe, 2017). The colony started out as a ‘semi-military’ dictatorship, but the discovery of the tobacco plant left all of the political decisions up to the wealthy planters (Wolfe, 2017).The Carolinas The economy was fueled by cash crops such as rice and indigo that grew on huge plantations tended to by slaves. Both African Americans and Native Americans were used as slaves in the Carolinas (Alchin, 2017). There was true freedom of religion in the Carolinas which allowed Baptists, Anglicans, and other types of religious people to thrive in this colony, this also led to religious freedom across the U.S. after the revolution because the people realized the conflicts related to not having it (Alchin, 2017).The Carolinas colony was governed as a royal colony and soon split into North and South Carolina with the north remaining a royal colony and the sound becoming its own colony (Alchin, 2017). There are many reasons that the colonist decided to start the American Revolution, even before the action that the British took in 1765 with the stamp act, the colonist did not approve of the strict rule that England had over the colonies, which were supposed to be free and self-governing. From imposing taxes that paid for wars, that the colonies had no part in, to Britain continuing to declare war even after July 4, 1776, and the signing of the declaration of independence the colonist strived to be a separate entity from their British rulers. Although the colonies didn’t agree with the way they were being controlled by Britain having the stamp act imposed on them in 1765 was their breaking point. The Creators told colonies that it was to finance the troops sent to protect the colonies, which they did not want anyway, but the tax was also used to reduce England’s debt from the French Indian war (History Lists, n.d). This is what coined the famous phrase know by almost all Americans; no taxation without representation, which still stands true to what American citizens believe today. Although Britain did end the tax in 1766 the American revolution had already begun, and the British were losing their grasp on the colonies. One of the worst events leading to the American Revolution was the Boston massacre in 1770, not only did British soldiers open fire on unarmed civilians, but they killed five of the men in the crowd (History Lists, n.d). The story caught wind so fast that nearly all of the colonies had heard about the event and planned to take action. After the British had passed the tea act in 1773 creating a monopoly on tea trade in the colonies the violence began; 70 men boarded three different ships and dumped all the tea on them (History Lists n.d). The British tried to regain control be passing the intolerable acts, but that only enraged the colonists more. The intolerable acts closed the Boston harbor until the colonist would pay for the damaged goods destroyed in the Boston tea party; it also limited power that the colonists had in government, made it harder to punish British soldiers and officials living in the colonies, and took part of the colonies, giving it to the Quebec province (History Lists, n.d) . Rather than disciplining the colonists for the Boston tea party this only enraged them and led to the colonists to demanding rights and liberties. In order to revoke the intolerable acts, 12 colonies sent delegates to meet at the first continental congress meeting where they decided that the only way to end the intolerable acts was to boycott British goods and boycott the export of American goods to England (History Lists, n.d). Although this was a great idea, this would only cause more tension between the colonies and Britain, who refused to let go of their profitable possessions.This led to the battle of Lexington and Concord where colonial militiamen were defeated in Lexington, but regained control in Concord, forcing British soldiers to retreat (History Lists, n.d). Even after July 4, 1776, when the declaration of independence was signed the British still refused to lose and caused the battle of Saratoga where the British were defeated due to the French joining forces with the American Colonies. By 1781 The British found that the French and American force at sea and on land were too strong for them and surrendered, known as the surrender of Yorktown. The American Revolution finally ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783 where the British admitted their defeat and recognized the American Declaration of Independence from 1776. After the American Revolution the social structure didn’t completely change, though there were a few beneficial adjustments to life in America, the main leaders of the revolution saw it as a turning point in the for the political side of America. There was more room for men in politics so they needed those men to be educated; to do so the mothers became primary educators, teaching children about the bible, republican virtues and classical subjects, the women themselves needed to be taught too, which led to better education for both girls and boys; this education method was called republican motherhood (Alpha History, 2015) . This adjusted the social perspective that men had on women, before the revolution even John Adams laughed at his wife’s idea for women’s rights, then after they were well educated and held jobs (Alpha History, 2015) Unfortunately, the newly founded government did not do anything for African American slaves for almost 80 years, although the northern states didn’t agree with slavery and began gradually emancipating slaves in 1784 it was long before the south was actually forced to abolish slavery (Alpha History, 2015). The constitution even allowed the slave trade to continue, though only for twenty more years, that is a long time compared to other countries that ceased the practice altogether (Alpha History, 2015). For Native Americans the result was worse; many Tribes fought alongside the colonies hoping that winning meant the colonies would not expand more into their territory, however, this did not happen, after many died due to not having any resistance to diseases brought over by colonists the treaty of Paris signed over land rights to the colonists, meaning that the Native Americans lost their lives for nothing (Alpha History, 2015) . This led to Colonists into centuries of intimidating Native Americans into giving up their land, even if it meant having to torture or even kill the Natives (Alpha History, 2015). This was possibly one of the worst outcomes of the Revolutionary War, though it did benefit white men of all classes and women in some ways it left African Americans and Native Americans at a huge disadvantage especially after giving their lives up for the cause.