There are many things that tell how currents work and affect the plant. Some of the things that will be talked about in this essay is how currents work/ are what cause them, upwelling, El Niño and ENSO, and last but not least deep water currents.      To begin with I will be talking about how currents work/ what causes them. Wind is a major part on what causes currents. Winds like the trade winds cause them. So combinations of trade winds, westerlies and the Coriolis effect results in the flow in each ocean, they are called Gyres. The five major gyres are the North Atlantic Gyre, South Atlantic Gyre, North Pacific Gyre, South Pacific Gyre, and the Indian Ocean Gyre.      Upwelling plays a very important part  to how the ocean works. Upwelling is a vertical movement of water that brings deep water to the surface of the ocean. It occurs when a wind blows offshore or parallel to shore.  So upwelling brings nutrients to the surface that creates places of high productivity. The reason why it causes an increase in productivity is because it  causes more nutrients to be in those places.     El Niño or ENSO is a buildup of warm water in the central and eastern equatorial pacific that greatly affects weather. They are two different things because when there is a El Niño situation is when it has to do with warm water that causes the sea level to drop. While ENSO is what it is normally like. It’s a cold cold phase where sea levels are higher. Every three to eight years this pattern changes for ENSO.     So when it comes to deep water currents wind is not a primary cause. Deep circulation is the primary cause. It is when water motion is caused by mixing waters of different densities. It begins when water density increases do to cooling. So deep water currents are different than other currents.    So in conclusion currents affect the plant in many ways. Like how they work/ what causes them. Upwelling is another important part of it. So is the El Niño and the ENSO . Then there is also deep water currents that is just as important.    

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