There which is from high temperature pasteurization to
There are many effects of heat transfer issues to our world. One of it include the rising of demand for water usage during periods of hot weather. According to Christopher, in a heat waves, water is a very common used to cool down the bridges and other metal structures susceptible to heat failure. This causes serious shortages of water supply in many affected areas.
This also can contribute to fire inhibition problems for both urban and rural fire departments. On the other hand, the rise in water temperature during heat waves will cause the degradation of water quality and a lot of bad effects for fish and aquatic populations. It can also lead to the death or imbalance of many other organisms in the lake, river and sea ecosystem. High temperatures due to high heat released are also contributed to unlimited algae growth, causing fish death in rivers and lakes. Thus, the extremely heat released from industry area will contribute to water pollution. Besides, according to Dan, the continuous of raising of heat also support to the more usage of energy consumption. This because human will use more energy for cooling purpose to withstand hot weather.
Hence, the combustion of fossil fuels will become more frequent due to the high demands and more heat will be generated to the environment. Heat exchanger is one of the common heat transfer application used in industry. Sadik (2002) stated that heat exchanger is an efficient device constructed for the efficacious heat transfer between two fluids with different temperatures. The material which usually use to separate the fluid is a solid wall which purpose to prevent mixing and in direct contact between two fluids. Heat exchangers are commonly wide used in biochemical processing industry, food processing industry, pharmaceuticals aspect, dairy industry, chemical plants and also petroleum plants industry.
The use of heat exchangers in bioprocess industry is popular which is from high temperature pasteurization to low temperature which is freezing. Based on Padmakshi (2013), got some type of heat exchangers which include shell and tube heat exchangers, plate heat exchangers, plate & shell heat exchangers, plate fin heat exchangers, dynamic scraped surface heat exchangers, phase change heat exchangers and double pipe heat exchangers. In fact, P. Raskovic (2010) mentioned that the basic principle of heat exchanger is only involved the heat transfer between two fluids with different temperature. Both two fluids are brought in close contact with each other but there are separated from mixing by a physical barrier which like solid wall. The temperature of the both two fluids will soon reach to an equilibrium temperature through the heat transfer. The energy from each fluid is exchanged from the hot to cool media and no extra heat is added or removed.
The Heat exchanger must be designed to suit for all the cases of heat exchange and the performance also need to be the best suited for all conditions due to the not constant of heat in the heat exchange process and the not constant of the heat amount of the fluids. Furthermore, the design also need to be like the heat exchange is at a particular rate required by the process. Originally, Heat exchangers are designed to be over sized for the cases of fouling occur. The surface of heat exchanger is also needed to be large enough to carry out operations. For example, Heat exchangers can be used in food industry as a process of cooling down various products. Kravanja (2012). Products such as hazelnut pastes and various types of food pastes also required to be cooled down first or heated up before proceeding to the further process. The type of Heat Exchanger used is a Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger.
The Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger is designed for processing various high viscosity materials such as food and heat exchanging a variety of heat sensitive products like fruit pulps. Fouling of heat exchangers in industries is a long term operational problem that compromises energy recovery and environmental welfare. According to H. Muller (2009), fouling in flow channels, tubes, or other parts in processing equipment may create a lot of major operating problems such as loss of heat transfer, under-deposit corrosion, increased pressure loss, and also flow maldistribution.
These problems may contribute many negative impacts on cost, safety, health, and environmental aspects. Meanwhile for environment aspects, fouling of heat exchangers will cause the increased of safety hazards released during operation and cleaning, increased in the consumption of electricity, water, fossil fuels, and other resources that are needed for cleaning, increased environmental hazards and emissions. The environmental issues related to the released of harmful chemical fouling inhibitors, method of disposal of chemical wastes, CO2 emissions and land or water pollution cause by operations of heat exchanger also have been pointed out. Routbort et al.
(2009) stated that used nano?uids for industrial cooling could result in good energy savings and resulting emissions reductions. The replacement of cooling and heating water with nano?uids has the more potential to conserve energy. Furthermore, using nano?uids as agent in closed-loop cooling cycles could also save more energy than using water as coolant. By this way, the consumption of energy can be decrease efficiently, and less natural sources will be used to generate energy. The replacement of nanofluid also able to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides, and sulphur dioxide (SO2) from industry area. This can help to save environment from the released of harmful gases and greenhouse gasses.
ReferencesChristopher R. Adams. Impacts of Temperature Extremes. Retrieved from http://sciencepolicy.colorado.edu/socasp/weather1/adams.html Dan Pisut and Richard Rivera.
Heat Waves and Climate Change. Retrieved from https://www.c2es.org/content/heat-waves-and-climate-change/ H. Muller-Steinhagen, M.R. Malayeri, A.
P. Watkinson (2009). Heat Exchanger Fouling: Environmental Impacts. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01457630902744119?scroll=top&needAccess=true Kravanja P, Koenighofer K, Canella L m Jungmeier G, Friedl A (2012). Perspectives for the production of bioethanol from wood and straw in Austria: Technical, economic and ecological aspects.
Clean Technol Environ 2012; 14(3): 411-25 Padmakshi Agarwal, Adhirath Sikand, Shanthi V (2013). APPLICATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY: A REVIEW. Retrieved from http://www.ijppsjournal.com/Vol6Issue1/8095.pdf P.
Raskovic , A. Anastasovski, L. Markosvska,V. Mesko (2010), Process integration in bioprocess industry waste heat recovery in yeast and ethyl alcohol plant, Journal Energy35,2010,704-717 J.
Routbort, et al., Argonne National Lab, Michellin North America, St. Gobain Corp. (2009), http://www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/nanomanufacturing/pdfs/nano?uids industrialcooling.
pdf Sadik Kakaç and Hongtan Liu (2002). Heat Exchangers: Selection, Rating and Thermal Design (2nd ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0902-6.