The viruses and toxins produced bythose organisms
The occupational health deals with all aspects of health and safety in the workplaceand has a strong focus on primary prevention of hazards.It is a multidisciplinary including medicine, psychology, epidemiology, physiotherapy andrehabilitation, occupational therapy, occupational medicine, human factors and ergonomics,and many others field of health care concerned with enabling an individual to undertaketheir occupation, in the way that causes least harm to their health, To avoid pre-existingconditions causing a problem in the occupation and to correct posture for the work, frequencyof rest breaks, preventative action that can be undertaken.The role of occupational health is promotion of health and safety at work, which isconcerned with preventing harm from any incidental hazards, arising in the workplace.The main objectives of occupational health:? the maintenance and promotion of workers’ health and working capacity? The improvement of working environment and work to become conducive to safetyand health.? Development of work organizations and working cultures in a direction, whichsupports health and safety at work, and in doing so promotes a positive social climateand smooth operation and may enhance productivity of the undertakings.The concept of working culture intended in this context to mean a reflection of theessential value systems adopted by the undertaking concerned. Such a culturereflected in practice in the managerial systems, personnel policy, and principles forparticipation, training policies and quality management of the undertaking.Even though work provides many economic and other benefits, a wide collection ofworkplace hazards also present risks to the health and safety of people at work. Theseinclude:Physical hazards affect many people in the workplace.Occupational hearing loss is the most common work-related injury that led to hearing lossdisability. Falls are also a common cause of occupational injuries and fatalities, especially inconstruction, extraction, transportation, healthcare, and building cleaning and maintenance.Machines have moving parts, sharp edges, hot surfaces and other hazards with the potentialto crush, burn, cut, shear, stab or otherwise strike or wound workers if used unsafely.Biological hazards include infectious microorganisms such as viruses and toxins produced bythose organisms such as anthrax. Biological hazard affect workers in manyindustries influenza for example, affects a broad population of workers Outdoor workers,including farmers, landscapers, and construction workers, risk exposure to numerousbiohazards, including animal bites and stings, urushiol from poisonous plants and diseasestransmitted through animals such as the West Nile virus and Lyme disease.Health care workers, including veterinary health workers, risk exposure to blood-bornepathogens and various infectious diseases, especially those that are emerging.Chemical hazard dangerous chemicals can be expos in the workplace. There are manyclassifications of hazardous chemicals, including neurotoxins, immune agents, dermatologicagents, carcinogens, reproductive toxins, systemic toxins, asthmagens, pneumoconiosisagents, and sensitizersPsychosocial hazards include risks to the mental and emotional well-being of workers, suchas feelings of job insecurity, long work hours, and poor work-life balance.Some defection about the health occupation:The labour is any man or woman over the age of sixteen working in return for any type ofremuneration, for an employer and under his supervision and management, whether under awritten or unwritten, explicit or implicit contract, or under training or probation period, orperforming mental, technical, office, or administrative work.Excluded from that, the domestic servants, family members of the employer who live withhim and who are dependent on him for livingThe employer is any person who employs, under a contract of employment, one person ormore in return for any type of remuneration.Occupational accident is any occupational injury or disease, which afflicts the workerduring working hours or because of work and which hinders his performance. The term alsoincludes fire, explosion or collapse at the workplace.Serious accident is any accident, which causes the death of a worker or his disability by 50per cent or the injury of more than one worker.It also includes fire, explosion, and collapse causing damage to equipment or to theworkplace.Occupational disease is any disease that affect the health of person due to the exposure.History of occupational health in Sudan:Sudan occupational health services in were administered centrally from Khartoum in additionto the three regional sections in Atbara Port Sudan and Wadamnadi until 1993, where thefederal government was declared as a formula for the government system in Sudan and theissuance of the twelfth decree which transferred the executive work in the occupational healthof the states.The Occupational Health Administration consists of several specialized departments asfollows:-Medical Section- Department of Environment and Environmental Pollution-Department of Human Engineering and Work Physiology- Professional Sociology Department- InspectorsKhartoum state law of occupational health 2011:This law is allowance by the Parliament of the Khartoum state and signed by the governorof the Khartoum state and the responsible of the application of this law is the Khartoum stateof ministry of health.The main role of this law to promotion the health of workforce in Khartoum state. The aim ofthis policy is to define the regulatory procedures in the workplace to protect the health andsafety of workers and to cope with the risks resulting from working environment conditions.This policy is consistent.Consistent and effective, aimed at improving working conditions, raising the level ofprotection and preventing injuries. These policies should also provide guidance andmotivation for the application of sound principles and methods of occupational healthmanagement in enterprises.? Providing strategies and policies for saving the labours health from occupationaldisease and work injury that can affect the life of the labour1- By formulate general policies for occupational health services at the level of differentstates.2- Coordination with international organizations and other bodies such as ministries andrelevant institutions such as ministries of labour, agriculture, interior, industry andinstitutions of the Ministry of Education and scientific research, such as universitiesand higher technical institutes and scientific research centres in all matters and helpsin the development of occupational health.3- Training of doctors, work environment experts, and health officers to obtain apostgraduate degree such as a master’s degree in the field of occupational health. Andtraining of assisting staff such as nursing technicians, technicians and healthobservers.? Assurance about the safety of the work place and the environment, the owner of thework place should provide protection for his labours from dust, strong light, noise,electricity, radiation and atmospheric pressure.Providing protection form physical and chemical hazard.Providing good training for the labours to do no harm themselves during work thatcall occupational accident.Take the precaution for safety and provide insurance for health dangers.Work place should provide first aid and fire extinguishers.? Consider complaints from individuals and groups about health occupation.? Do researches, studies and danger analysis about health occupation.? Doing periodic health check-up.? Monitoring and evaluation.The Occupational Health Act provides workers with their rights and protecting them fromrisks and exploiting by the employers for their materials needs and poverty.By putting regulations about the work environments and the health of labours.In Sudan, the occupational health awareness not enabled at level of the countries.Khartoum state start the occupational health law application and close many industries thatnot providing the safety of the labours and should pay fines and close for a timeThe application of the occupational health law decrease the ability of confrontation ofdeveloping an occupational accident or disease.That decrease the prevalence of disability due to work and the disease that occurs due toprolong exposer to element that can cause the disease like infected animals cancer genicsubstance, chemicals and radiations.The industries owners should follow the occupational health work law that save the workforces.The multi dispenlary workers in occupational health should work together and continuousmonitoring and regulations of the strategies to evaluation the roles and strategies.