The 1983 by scientists from France and
The scourge of HIV/AIDs in global healthcare management and the attendant challenges have continued to threaten the world population with manifest negative impact on infants, teenagers, ,adults and businesses From the identification of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which is instrumental to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in 1983, the outcome has assumed epidemic status. As the HIV/AIDS challenge continues to spread across the globe, infected people are being expected to grow significantly especially the effects of the disease on families and businesses HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a virus that causes problems with the immune system and affects its capacity to fight infections. It is a long-term infectious disease that develops as a result of human immunodeficiency virus infection and is characterized by a continuous incapacitation of the human immune system and this has become one of the most complex health problems of the 21st century. The first AIDS patients were registered in the United States in 1981Arinola & Adekunjo (2012). The infectious agents of the disease, which led to severe impairment of the immune system, were discovered in 1983 by scientists from France and the United States, Gallo and Montagnier, who, independently from each other, found it in the blood of patients, who died as a result of AIDS. HIV belongs to the retrovirus family of lentiviruses. This virus family causes diseases that develop slowly and proceed continuously. The HIV genetic material, like other retroviruses, is represented by RNA (ribonucleic acid), which is a template for the production of pro-viral DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). HIV is slow acting in its pathogenic impact on the human body. There are two types of HIV, identified as HIV-1 and HIV-2. Both are transmitted in the same manner and result inclinically similar AIDS. The difference is that HIV-2 appears to be less easily transmitted than HIV-1, and the period between infection and full-blown AIDS is longer with HIV-2. HIV-1 predominates both worldwide and in Africa. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a viral disease caused by human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that is usually found in body fluids like blood, semen, vaginal fluid, and breast milk of infected persons. The virus can be transferred from one infected person to another, mostly through sexual intercourse and sharing of un-sterilized instruments like blades, knives, and syringes which had once been used by infected persons. These fluids must come in contact with a mucous membrane or damaged tissue or be directly injected into the bloodstream (from a needle or syringe) for transmission to occur. Mucous membranes are found inside the rectum, mouth, male and female organs.(https://aidsinfo.nih.gov). The effect of HIV/AIDS is more devastating on the working-age population as people are mostly in their most productive years which adversely impact their earnings, resulting from increased care demands, increased healthcare expenditure and possible untimely death. Economically, there is probable drop in organization revenue and eventually reduction production and investment which ultimately affect global economic growth (http://www.nef.com.na/workAids.php). By the year 2020, the World Bank estimates that the macroeconomic impact of HIV/AIDS may be significant enough to reduce the growth of national income by up to a third in countries with adult prevalence rates of 10% UNAIDS (2002).