The that covers what sexual violence and sexual

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The school plays a key role in helping
children learn to interact positively with their peers and teachers.
They learn about healthy relationship skills and develop them further through
interactions, both in the classroom and on the playground (Barnardo’s and Local Government Association, 2012). Sexual Violence and
Sexual Harassment’ is new government guidance, published in December 2017 that
covers what sexual violence and sexual harassment is, what schools’ and
colleges’ legal responsibilities are, creating a whole school or college
approach to safeguarding and child protection and how to respond to reports of
sexual violence and sexual harassment (HM Government, 2015) and (Home office,
2015)). Professionals also need to be aware of how to support such young people
and the range of specialist agencies that can either advise them or provide
targeted support to address risk factors which may indicate or lead to CSE as
well as providing a clear response when CSE is confirmed to be taking place (HM
Government, 2015); (Broad, 2005) and (Pearce,
2009) and (Bokhari, 2008). It is also important that while professionals intend
to increase awareness of CSE at a local level, the assessments that are carried
out must identify risks effectively so that responses can be targeted
appropriately. Often the first place that children who are abused by a family
member can be helped is within the hospital or GP they are attending (Barlow, 2010). When a physician notices unusual signs in
a child—sadness, separation from the group, a sharp decline in cognitive
achievement, a preference for being alone, attention problems, depression, lack
of energy, social problems, secretiveness this is a clear indication of some
serious disturbance in the child’s life. Although these signs show that the
child is experiencing a severe problem, it is possible that the cause has
nothing to do with sexual abuse however each case should be carefully
considered to see what lies behind the symptoms and referred to local
authorizes instantly. All organizations
that work with children share a commitment to safeguard and promote their
welfare for many organizations, this is underpinned by statutory duties (Barlow,
2010). An important part of multidisciplinary team work and providing health or
social care services is multi-agency working. Multi- agency working is about
different services, agencies and teams of professionals working together to
provide the services that fully meet the needs of people using the services
meaning that if all professionals listed work together and effectively follow
and respect the legislation, policy and guidance there will be consistent with
saving victim, locating perpetrators and prosecuting CSE perpetrators and
protecting kids from being potential victims.

The Department for Education is responsible for child protection in
England. It sets out policy, legislation and statutory guidance on how the
child protection system should work (HM Government, 2015).
At the local level Local Safeguarding Children Boards (LSCBs) co-ordinate,
and ensure the effectiveness of, work to protect and promote the welfare of
children (HM Government, 2015).  Each local
board includes: local authorities, health bodies, the police and others,
including the voluntary and independent sectors (HM Government, 2015); (Barnardo’s and Local Government Association, 2012)
and (Pearce, 2013).Children act 2004, and modern slavery act 2015, whilst these legislations
are strengthening, and guidance are adapting to its legislation change it will
and give the members of local authority’s pediatricians, doctors, teachers,
social workers further knowledges and techniques to enforce early awareness,
quicker effective assessment and alertness to diluted indicators.


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Maslow (1943, 1954) stated that people are
motivated to achieve certain needs and that some needs take precedence over
others. Our most basic need is for physical survival, and this will be the
first thing that motivates our behavior. Once that level is fulfilled the next
level up is what motivates us, and so on. Enduring poverty, limited
opportunities at home, lack of education, unstable social and political
conditions, economic imbalances and war are some of the key drivers that
contribute to someone’s vulnerability in becoming a victim of modern slavery (Dodsworth, 2013); (Hawkins, 2017) and (Haynes, 2015).
Once a child is entrapped in a cycle of sexual exploitation, it can be
difficult for their parents to understand why they return to their abusers because
grooming’ is like a process of recruitment and the victims are introduced into
a lifestyle which they are made to believe is normal, but which is abusive (Ost, 2004). The control and manipulation the child is under is very
similar to that experienced by victims of domestic violence. Sadly, child
sexual exploitation can leave some young people with serious long-term
emotional and physical effects if they lack coping adaptive strategies.

Examining youth stage the Erikson (1959)
psychosocial development stages the age range 12-18 years of youth is a
development process Identity vs Role Confusion. It’s a stage where adolescents
search for a sense and personal identity through an intense exploration of
personal values, beliefs and goals. Children become more independent and begin
to look at the future in terms of career, relationships, families and housing
considering children who never lived at home with parents and who need to be
prepared leaving care (Department for
Education, 2015) and (Broad, 2005). Children who’s coping strategies have been
defined as responses in the ecological framework that help manage a threat and
manage negative feelings associated with it, they may be particularly important
for those who experience sexual abuse for positive later life outcomes of
victims. Coping strategies can be adaptive or maladaptive (Daniel and Wassell,
2002). Adaptive strategies, such as problem solving, seeking support or information
and gaining a sense of control, are generally considered more helpful. Maladaptive
strategies, such as denial, disengagement or substance abuse, which may lead to
long-term problems because of Identity failure and belonging to society (Erikson,
1959) in response of sexual abuse causing crisis of role confusion in society
which adolescents may begin to experiment with different lifestyles. Pressuring
children into identity such as victims of sexual abuse can result in rebellion
in the form of establishing a negative identity and addition to this feeling of
unhappiness. Repeated sexual abuse will result in fear of being blamed or not
being believed, a lack of self-esteem and worthlessness, but also misplaced
loyalties towards the perpetrators. For many children, the
abuse equates to their first experience of sex and love, of which they have no
prior experience to measure it against.

Not all children who experience CSA suffer
consequences later in life. Children can develop resilience in many ways (Daniel
and Wassell, 2002). Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Framework for Human Development
applies socioecological models to human development (Daniel and Wassell, 2002).  Research in this area has been particularly
influenced by the ecological model of child development, under which children
are understood to both interact with and be affected by the settings in which
they spend time. The conceptual framework for resilience has therefore come to
encompass both internal and external factors (Vander, 2008). Not
every child who experiences sexual abuse is affected to the same degree come to
show no ill-effect later in life. Among the factors that can build resilience
to the impacts of sexual abuse are personal characteristics such as high
self-esteem or self-reliance, the development of positive coping strategies,
and informal support from adults known to the child, or through school,
religious groups or social clubs Bokhari (2008); Pearce
(2013); Barlow (2010) and Beckett, Holmes and Walker (2017). Attachment theory
(Bowlby,1969) suggests it is innate for children to seek closeness to a
reliable adult figure when facing stressful situations (Woodhead and Oates,
2007). If children decide to disclose abuse, they are more likely to talk to someone
they know personally such as an adult in the family, friend, neighbor or
teacher than to authorities like the police, social workers.

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