The are associated with fertile plains, inner
The world’s climate is changing,
and the changes will have an enormous impact in our forest ecosystem. The
latter is known for its lichen cover whose important role in nature is a bio
indicator of climate change.
is a mountainous province located in central Mindanao. The elevation ranges
from 622 meters above sea level to 2941 meters above sea level. The whole
province is surrounded by mountain ranges that are associated with fertile
plains, inner valley, lakes, and outer flood plains. The place gets its most of
its moisture from the precipitation which mostly occurs whole year round,
except during isolated cases of drought. As such, Bukidnon mountains house of
vegetation which is rich in biodiversity. A number of studies have already been
conducted in biodiversity, but relatively few studies on elevational richness
patterns for lichens have been undertaken (Kessler 2000; Bruun et al. 2006;
Grytnes et al. 2006).
are small plants, with slow growth and thrive in cool environment in higher
forest elevation and are estimated about 20,000 species worldwide. They have a
wide variety of growth forms, such as crustose, foliose and fruticose. These
group also grow on a wide range of substrates both natural and man-made and
obtain their required nutrients and water quality from the atmosphere thus, are
highly sensitive to atmospheric changes and are excellent bio indicators of
environment quality (Dyer and Letourneau, 2007; Mc Cure, 2000).
status of climate change and air pollution had been a critical factor in
affecting diversity status and population of lichens. The lichen flora species
is noted being a natural indicator of climate change and air pollution effects
and is very useful for monitoring existing species along in mountain region.
Thus lichens represent a significant proportion of biodiversity in many
ecosystems because of their moderate tolerance to environmental variation. The
different growth forms exhibits variation in their morphology structures like
the Crustose lichens usually form a crust on surface of the rock or material
thus their fat body structures are closely attached to the substrate. The
Foliose or leafy lichens on the other hand, are leaf-like and can survive in a
place that has small amount of air pollution; whereas the Fruticose or shrubby
lichens are fastest growing type and are attached to their substrate very
loosely causing them to hang in the trees and seen bushy. These type of lichen
really needs fresh air enable to survive thus when there are no fruticose
observed then the environment is said to be polluted. This report also examines
how altitude, air temperature, relative humidity, and pH affect the growth rate
and the number of types of lichens other than air quality.
pollution is still unresolved and continuously destroys the environment
including the forest ecosystem with air pollution affects the production,
growth development of the floral species, thus kills the biodiversity of the
species inhabiting the said area. To preserve and manage the species, it is
important to monitor the atmospheric condition of the remaining forest in
as much that, only few researchers has been working on lichens, the present
study hopes to contribute on the taxonomy status and ecological distribution of
lichens in Binahon Agroforestry Farm.