The stands for British Thermal Unit and is
The experiment that will be conducted is what material is the best for keeping water hot for a long period of time? The materials that will be used are seran wrap, rubber bands, black paint, cotton balls, and tape. Insulation reduces heat loss or heat gain. Houses have insulation to help make regulating the temperature easier. Also, the insulation is glass and rock that has melted down at temperatures around 1,000 degrees celcius, or 1832 degrees fahrenheit, and spun into fine strands of wool (“What Is Insulation?” Thinkinsulation, 27 July 2016,www.thinkinsulation.co.uk/insulation/what-is-insulation/.). Since a hot object expands, the cups being used for the experiment will need to be able to hold water that is heated with a cap on. Heat is the transfer of energy, so the cup will also be able to stop the heat from transferring out of it. The black paint is a good conductor of heat so it should have a good impact on how the temperature of the water is (Nelson, Ken. ” Physics for Kids: Heat Energy .” Ducksters. Technological Solutions, Inc. (TSI), Jan. 2018. Web. 10 Jan. 2018..). When deciding what cup to use, styrofoam came up. The reason that I will not be using styrofoam is that it is not eco-friendly and will harm many creatures when disposed. Even though they are very thick, making it harder for heat to escape and transfer, it will have a negative effect on the environment and this experiment should not harm any and every creature. When looking at plastic cups, I learned that they are either made from polystyrene or polycarbonate. This makes plastic cups tough and thick. This is also good for keeping the drink warm for a long period of time. Paper, glass, plastic, and styrofoam are great insulators, but I decided to choose plastic because it was cheaper and better for the environment, since I will be reusing old water bottles for the experiment. To understand more about how the drink stays warm, I learned about thermal conductivity. Thermal conductivity is measured in BTU/feet-hour-degrees F. BTU stands for British Thermal Unit and is “the amount of energy need to raise a pound of water 1 degree F at sea level” (Zorn, Kara. “Air Conditioning BTU’s: What Are They & What Do They Mean?” Compact Appliance, 21 Aug. 2016,learn.compactappliance.com/air-conditioning-btus/.). Glass has a high thermal conductivity of 1.82 BTU. I decided to go with plastic because it has a thermal conductivity of 0.69 – 0.35 BTU (Summer, Dot. “What Is a Better Insulator: Paper, Glass, Plastic, or Styrofoam?” LIVESTRONG.COM, Leaf Group, 13 June 2017, www.livestrong.com/article/345286-what-is-a-better-insulator-paper-glass-plastic-or-styrofoam/.). Thermal conductivity is the transfer of heat when two objects are touching each other. Some good conductors are metals like copper, aluminum, gold, and silver. Bad conductors are wood, plastic, and rubber (“What Is Thermal Conductivity? (Article).” Khan Academy, www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/specific-heat-and-heat-transfer/a/what-is-thermal-conductivity.). The bad conductors will be used to stop the water from reaching equilibrium with the room’s temperature. Water bottles are used in our daily lives and many people want to have a bottle that can keep their liquids cool or warm for a long time. Some water bottles say they can keep liquids cool or warm for 12 hours or more, but some can’t do that. In the experiment, I will be testing how long a liquid, water, stays hot. I have 3 different designs for 3 different materials.