The to the present time, pest causes a
plant is an ideal host for many insect species. All of the plant parts are
vulnerable to insect-feeding from the time of sowing till harvest. There are
over 800 insect species damaging rice in one way or another, although the
majority of them do very little damage (Nwilene, F., Stout, M., Hadi, B.,
Freitas, T. 2017, pp.1 ). Pest is an enemy of farmers in their rice crops. From
the past up and to the present time, pest causes a big trouble to the farmers.
Rice pest is a threat to the large scale and small scale farmers. It can lost a
lot of grains of rice. Specifically, it can damage a large part of rice farm.
And also, it will lead to a problematic and serious situation. There are many
pest attacked in the wide range of farms. Since the rice plant starts to grow
up to the time of harvest, a lot of pest occur to attack the rice plant. The
destruction of pest bring too much lost to the production of yields. And it may
cause greater amount of lost in income. This kind of situation brings conflict
in the farmers.
For the past
years, rice farmers practiced various strategies to prevent danger made by the
rice pest. This knowledge practiced is coming from the different factors that
influenced them. In the past and present days, many rice farmers have their own
knowledge in order to fight against their enemy. Farmers’ strategies or
techniques might be coming from different sources. These strategies influenced
them in handling and managing their farms. Obviously, these techniques is
already their customary practices. Also, they know how to apply different
strategies when there is a pest attacked to their farm. It is understood that
they already know how to handle their farm when pest violate. The strategies or
techniques is coming from the factors that affect the knowledge of many
farmers. This knowledge may came from the people that they interact every day.
Additionally, they use the techniques acquired in interacting people. The
methods in pest control are classify as mechanical, chemical, physical, or
cultural. These methods are used by farmers in controlling pest. And also, they
can be measured by different factors. These factors that influenced the small
scale farmers, tenants and large scale farmers used to help in reducing the
harm made by different pest.
concept, it will explain and understand the knowledge of rice farmers in
controlling pest. The concept of controlling pest will explore all the
knowledge acquired by farmers in interacting to the group of people. The
education, cooperation, access to technicians, experiences in farming or coming
from their ancestors can be explained on how and what they do these kind of
patterns in farming.
Rogers (1995), knowledge and awareness of a new technology is the first ways of
adoption. This is the case especially for interventions that are skill or
knowledge based (David and Asamoah, 2011, pp.18). Knowledge in different
techniques helps farmers to adjust pest attacked. It believed that rice is the
world’s most important staple food crop. More than half of the world’s
population relies on rice as the major daily source of calories and protein
(Kasmaprapruet, Paengjuntuek, and Saikhwan, & Phungrassami, 2009, pp.100). One
reason to help the rice yields is having a good production (GTNRDS, 2009,
pp.5). Mostly, farmers challenge in rice production is low yield. According to
Hushnawati, Kwong-ching, LinPing-Shih (2012) there are different pest and
diseases in the rice crops. They are rat, bird, apple snail, rice bug, stem
borer, rice leaf roller and bacterial leaf blight. Farmers face different kinds
of risks. Farming rice in rural areas is influenced by human selection and
management. Environmental, biological, and cultural factors influenced a
farmer’s decision to accept or reject various strategies in cultivation. They
face production risks from natural phenomena and economic risks from market
fluctuations and related economic phenomena. If all relevant variables were
known with certainty, farmers would face the classical maximization problem:
maximizing profits. However, after decisions are made, natural and economic
conditions change, and with this new setup, previously optimal decisions become
suboptimal (Rola, A. & Pingali, P., 1993, pp.41-42). Along this line, Antle
(1983) advanced the hypothesis that risk matters primarily because production
is a dynamic phenomenon and that production and price uncertainty therefore
affect expected productivity and expected income. The analysis of dynamic,
uncertain models shows that farmers’ optimal decisions are affected by risk
whether they are “risk neutral” or “risk averse.” This suggests that dynamic,
risk neutral models may be more useful than conventional static risk averse
models (Anderson et al 1980) for understanding the role of production risk in
farm management. (Rola A. & Pingali, P. 1993, pp.42).
Farmers’ pest control activities
reflect their individual perceptions, not necessarily the actual situation
(Tait 1977; Mumford 1981, 1983; Norton and Mumford 1983; Pingali and Carlson
1985; Carlson and Mueller 1987 pp.7). Indigenous pest control methods employed
by local rice farmers, after having been identified, were classified into:
cultural (9), chemical (2), mechanical (5), biological (2), and physical (2).
Two practices such as uttering of prayer while fertilizing the plants and
offering foods to the Gods, saints, and spirits were categorized as “cultural
worships”. (Nicolas, A. & Cabarogias, . 2015, pp.442).And also, these
farmers deflect the ideas of farming from the individuals they encounter. Agriculture
in Bangladesh are used to control pest using other traditional methods besides
insecticide. In these cases they used indigenous knowledge to control pest not
to avoid the hazard of pesticide, mainly to minimize the production cost. Among
the other methods, 40% of the farmers used crop rotation as an alternative to
chemical pesticides use, 19% used timely planting and 15 % used resistant
varieties. Only 2% of the farmers used Integrated Pest Management (IPM) technique
to control pest of rice. Bio-controls means that they use bird to feed the
insect. Remaining 12% farmers used other methods such as, soap, kerosene oil,
light and net trap to control insect. (Sultana, P. & Nobukazu N., pp.116).
In certain extent they pull the insect larvae by hand also. The knowledge of
farmers was greatly influenced by their level of education. The average level
of education of the farmers was 6 years of schooling. (Sultana, P. &
Nobukazu, N., pp.123).
Farmers also uses pesticide as rice
pest control to their farm. Farmers believe that pesticides is effective in
controlling pest production. Many farmers think that the pesticide is a
medicine to threat the crop to be recovered from the pest attack. Most
farmer-respondents (67%) spray their fields when a neighbor sprays to prevent
the pests from transferring to their farms (Rola, A. & Phrabu P. 1993,). The
issues, which were not perceived by the farmers, they showed neutral attitude
towards them. It might be due to the influence of socio-economic characteristic
such as, age and education and occupation (Rola and Pingali 1993 pp.124).
Agricultural education is needed to facilitate learning, which instills a favorable
attitude towards the use of improved farm practices (Nkamleu and Manyong 2005,
obtain their knowledge about pesticide dosage from government technicians,
pesticide sales people, pesticide labels, and other farmers. Knowledge of
farmers is acquired from technicians who gave them ideas in farming.
Technicians assist farmers in proper handling the pest control. Proper training about correct dosages is
imperative for government technicians because industry sales people may tend to
convey a message of higher dosages and frequent application to increase their
sales (Rola, A. Pingali, P., 1993, pp.33). According, Msangya & Yihuan
(2016) lack of technician in farming influence in rice productivity. It is
stated that technical assistance shall be needed in farming rice.
Strategies in farming also form from
the ancient practices. These practices were acquired from their ancestors and
passed down from generation to generation by word of mouth. Plastic straws with
plastic bags or cans are tied around the rice field (Nicolas, A. &
Cabarogias, A. pp.441-444).
Another rice pest that attacked in
the rice crop is the bird named “maya”. Maya is also a pest that affects growth
of the rice crop. Many farmers find different strategies to avoid the
destruction made by the birds. The straws produce a sound as the wind strikes
on it. Some use gunshots or firecrackers to scare away birds that may feed on
the grains. Farmers collect the rice straws that were ejected by the thresher,
dry them, and burn. They consider it a good practice for it kills the immature
stages of insects present on it. When the crop has already been harvested,
farmers offer some of their produce to the church for thanksgiving. They
believe that when they give thanks to the Lord, they will be continuously
blessed with good harvests (Nicolas, A. & Cabarogias, A. pp.441-444).
the use of domestic ducks has been key to knocking back snail populations to
manageable levels. Where multiple strategy control systems are in place, the
addition of domestic ducks significantly reduces the time and labor spent in
hand removal of snails and reduces crop loss and damage to less than ten
percent (Levin, P., 2006, pp.86).
to have training to improve knowledge, attitudes and skills on better farming
practices in order to increase productivity and alleviate poverty in rural
areas (Kebede, 2010, pp.10). A study on diffusion of biotechnology in Cotton in
China showed that training helped farmers to change their cotton bollworm
spraying practices (Lifeng,et al., 2007 pp.10). The intensity of participation
during training increases the probability of farmers adoption of new farming
practices (Kijima, et al., 2010; Noltze, et al., 2012 pp.17).Additionally, the
undergoing training and exposure in the demonstration field made by 335 farmers
applied over an area of 609 hectares in 11 districts of Giang. This proved that
training or exposure can influenced knowledge of farmers in farming.
practices in rice production over the last 100 years essentially evolved out of
the changes in the varieties introduced and planted by Filipino farmers, which
subsequently changed the manner production and postharvest operations had to be
done. Rice production practices are expected to continue to evolve to the
changing challenges and needs of the times-when both Filipino scientists and
rice farmers come up with innovations that would pursue rice self-sufficiency
and global competitiveness in farming. Direct seeding, mechanization, and
integrated nutrient and pest management will continue to be refined and
practice on a wider scale (Bautista, E.U. & Javier, E.F., 2008, pp.100).
The practiced of the farmers regulate in the form of interacting various group
of people. The knowledge they acquire remains because it will continue to
transfer from one farmer to the other groups of farmers.