The design of three-dimensional (3D) stacked
architectures are gaining attractive day by day as they increase transistor
density per chip footprint, manufacturing and performance by reducing interconnect
latency, while enabling the integration of manufactured layers with different
technologies on the same chip 1. 3D chip stacking
technology ensures growth in system level performance by allowing the
integration of different technologies onto a single chip. High on temperature
is a limiting factor in 3D chip stacked systems, in order to overcome this
problem accurate thermal modelling, design of microchannel liquid cooling
system and development of efficient management strategies 2.

Generally 3D chip stacked
systems have higher power densities compared to 2D systems because 3D systems
containing more number of transistors in the same footprint. The on-chip
temperatures for 3D chip stacked systems are higher than 2D chip stacked
systems and thermal resistance brought by stacking multiple layers on top of
each other. So to reduce these problems in 3D chip stacked systems we
introducing a microchannel based liquid cooling system, which is a promising
solution for high performance 3D systems 2.

In 1914 Cadillac, first time
in vehicle industry he introduced a thermostatic valve which is controlled by a
coolant water system to increase internal pressure and thereby raising boiling
point. Since then liquid cooling systems has gained lot of importance in
reducing temperature of various systems instead of using heat spreader, heat
sink or fan 3. In this system we
are designing a microchannel liquid cooling system where water as a coolant
substance to reduce the temperature of the 3D system. Liquid cooling is mainly
performed by microchannels which are fabricated between the layers of 3D chip (interlayer
liquid cooling system) and then coolant is pumped through the water channels to
remove heat from the system. This cooling system has a superior cooling
performance, but this liquid cooling system brings new management challenges
which we are going to discuss in further chapters 4.

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