The was left to cool overnight (Ricardo Correia

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The dried biomass was weighted and stored inside a clay pot. The
clay pot was covered by a lid and sealed with commercially available epoxy
resin to provide air-tight and oxygen limiting environment. A muffle furnace
was used to heat the feed at high temperatures. The low temperature
carbonization of this feed material was carried out at 300oC for a
period of 2 hours. The clay pot was left to cool overnight (Ricardo
Correia et al., 2017).

1.3.2 Chemical Methods

The dried biomass is reacted with concentrated H2SO4
and H3PO4, maintaining a 1:1 ratio for 48 hours. This
leads to the formation of activated carbon. The resultant mixture is repeatedly
washed with distilled water till it becomes neutralized, 7 pH. Then the product
is dried in hot air oven at 140oC for 48 hours (Nethaji
et al., 2010). Ultrasonication is performed to the
activated carbon to study its effect on the increase in surface area of the
activated carbon. The prepared activated carbon is then sieved to three sizes

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1.4 Batch adsorption

1.4.1 Calibration of absorbance curve

UV spectrophotometer is used to determine the unknown
concentrations of the dye solution. The standard calibration chart of congo red
dye is computed by measuring the absorbance at different concentrations of 2.0
mg/L, 4.0 mg/L, 6.0 mg/L and 8.0 mg/L maintaining the maximum wave length (?max)
of 497 nm (Mohammad Shafiqul Alam et al., 2015).



amount of Congo Red adsorbed per gram of biomass (qe) can be
calculated using


is the volume of sample (L)

intial concentration of Dye (mg/L)

equilibrium Dye concentration (mg/L)

is the dry weight of Palm flower adsorbant powder (g)


Optimization of pH

The parameters of dye concentration,
temperature, adsorbant size and adsorbant amount are fixed. The value of pH is
varied from 4 – 8. pH is adjusted by using 0.1 N HCl and NaOH. A Dye solution
is prepared by adding a 100 mL of 200 mg/L intial dye concentration into a
conical flask. A fixed amount of activated carbon is added into the solution
and agitated with a magnetic stirrer at 150 rpm at 30oC for 6 hours.
The optimum pH value is accordingly found out (Srinivas Kini et al., 2014).

Optimization of amount of adsorbant

The parameters of dye concentration,
temperature, adsorbant size are fixed. The optimized pH value is maintained.
The amount of adsorbant is varied between, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 0.4, 0.5 g. This
solution is agitated with a magnetic stirrer at 150 rpm at 30oC for
6 hours. Therefore the optimum amount of adsorbant is found out (Srinivas Kini et al., 2014).

Selection of the best preparation method

By comparing the optimized amount of
adsorbant required,  pH conditions and
the surface area of all three activated carbons prepared from different methods
the best method is selected.

Optimization of size of activated carbon

The size of the activated carbon of the
best preparation method is conducted by doing batch adsorption studies. The
optimum pH and the amount of adsorbant is maintained. The dye concentration and
temperature are fixed. The sizes of adsorbant.

Kinetics Experiments

The optimum pH, amount and size of the
adsorbant are maintained from the previous experiments. The dye concentration
is varied from 25 mg/L to 100 mg/L at 30oC at 150 rpm for 45 min. The amount of
dye adsorbed is studied at different time intervals using UV spectroscopy. The
obtained data is used in the evaluation of kinetics. Similarly the  adsorption is studied at different
temperature variatio(Nethaji
et al., 2010).

1.5 UV light irradiation

UV irradiation is a type of advanced oxidation process. It
generates hydroxyl radicals. OH- radical attributed by high
oxidation potential and non-selectivity. These radicals oxidize organic dye
molecules and hence treat the effluents in water. Here we are studying the
efficiency and effects of the removal of dye molecule through adsorption along
with the exposure to UV radiation after we obtain the optimum adsorbant. (Grzegorz
Boczkaj and André Fernandes, 2017).

1.6 Scanning Electron Microscopy

Scanning Electron Microscopy uses a beam of electrons to produce
an image of the surface in nanometre scale. The surface morphology, pore size
and structure of the raw adsorbent, activated carbon and the optimum adsorbent
is illustrated through this technique (Elangovan et al.,

1.7 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

The FTIR spectra is used to study the O/C (oxygen to carbon ratio),
H/C ( hydrogen to carbon ratio) and functional group distribution. The
difference in peaks of groups such as ethers, alcohols, phenols is studied. FTIR
study is performed on the raw adsorbant, prepared activated carbon and the
optimized activated carbon to study the difference in their composition (Ricardo
Correia et al., 2017).

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