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The Gomillion v. Lightfoot act of 1960 happened in Tuskegee, Alabama after the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1957. Charles G. Gomillion and other African Americans protested the fact that white residents pushed forward the concept of redefining boundaries in the region, which would have the effect of eliminating most residents of African American decent. This would prevent them from voting in any given elections violating the Fifteenth Amendment. The court passed the ruling and turned the region that was once a square into a twenty-eight-figure region. After the presentation of the case in the Supreme Court, the act of redistricting was considered unconstitutional and reversed the lower courts’ dismissal of the case. This case impacted the role of the Supreme Court’s involvement in redistricting cases. Later these would be done as per population and was determined unconstitutional when it discriminated a certain ethnicity.


The Loving v. Virginia act of 1967 was brought about by a couple; Mildred Loving, a black woman, and Richard Loving, a white man, who were sentenced to one year in prison for invading the law that prohibited interracial marriage. The marriage went against the anti-miscegenation statute, the Racial Integrity Act of 1924. The Supreme Court unanimously decided that it was unconstitutional ending all race- based restrictions. The signifance was largely felt with an increase in interracial marriages in the country. It is remembered every year on June 12 as Loving Day and has been featured in movies such as Loving (2016).





The Smith v. Allwright act of1944 was a landmark decision taken by the Supreme Court to overturn the Texas law, which had authorized the Democratic Party to have its own rules. Lonnie E. Smith sued S.S. Allwright for setting rules in the party that all voters in the party were to be white which would deny him the ability to vote in the only meaningful election he could. This had been the case from 1890 to 1908. The Court found Smith in favor according to the Fourteenth Amendment. The decision revived participation of black voters in the Texas politics.

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United States v. Virginia case of 1996 gave path to admission of women to the ‘male- only’ dominant policy of the Virginia Military Institute (VMI). Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg found the VMI as violating the Fourteenth Amendment’s Equal Protection Clause from lack of convincing justification.

The high court struck down any law that denied women full citizenship stature just because they were women. They were all given equal opportunities to achieve, participate, aspire and contribute to society. The VMI thought of going private to exempt themselves but it presumed very costly. The VMI was the last all-male public university in the US. 

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