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The Supreme Court of the United States
is the highest judicial instance. The highest federal court in the United States that has a dominating position
among all U.S.
courts. In 1789 it was established in accordance with Article Three of the
United States Constitution. The Supreme Court mostly reviews the decisions of
lower courts serving as the main arbiter of disputes, but also, it may decide
cases having a political subtext. The most decisive power of the Supreme Court
is judicial review, the ability to check the constitutionality of actions
undertaken by the other branches of American government, on the federal and
state level.

Supreme Court consist of nine Justices, where one is a Chief Justice, and other
eight are Associate Justices. All Justices are nominated by the President and
then validated by the Senate. After being appointed, Justices have a lifelong
term. Justice can resign or retire, but if someone needs to remove a Justice
from the Supreme Court it could be done only in a constitutional way through
the sentencing verdict reached after the impeachment process.

American courts and judges have a special position among other branches of
government. This position has acquired due to decisions in various legal cases,
most of which relate to the foundation of U.S. constitutional law. Despite
the fact that the President is the Chief Executive appointed with broad powers,
and Congress is the main law-making body, the United States Supreme Court forms
the meaning of the main constitutional rules and norms.

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of all the Constitution was created to make a balanced system, where all
branches of power: the judiciary, the legislature, and the executive would
equally take part in the process of governing the country. However, during
centuries there were many changes that altered the balances system and the
separation of powers doctrine, hindering conception of the Constitution as a
document that ensures equality to the American governmental system.  Mainly due to the role of the Supreme Court
in shaping the scope of contemporary legal, economic and social relations in the
United States
these changes have occurred. 1

the Constitution-makers left the Court in vital respects a dependent body. The
political branches nominate and confirm the Justices, a control of the Court’s
composition which results in a somewhat lagging political influence over its
trend of decision, and any party that prevails in the Federal Government
through several presidential terms will gradually tend to impress its political
philosophy on the Court. The court is also dependent on the political branches
for its powers in other vital respects. Its only irrevocable jurisdiction is
original, and that reaches only cases affecting Ambassadors, public Ministers,
or Consuls, or cases in which a state is a party. In all other cases, it has
appellate jurisdiction. Also, the Court depends upon Congress for the
appropriation of funds with which to operate. These all add up to a fairly
formidable political power over the Supreme Court. But perhaps the most
significant and least comprehended limitation upon the judicial power is that
this power extends only to cases and controversies. The result of the
limitation is that the Court’s only power is to decide lawsuits between
adversary litigants with real interests at stake, and its only method of
proceeding is by the conventional judicial, as distinguished from legislative
or administrative process. Its inherent methods make it unfit for solving some
kinds of problems which elements of our society have from time to time expected
the Supreme Court to settle. While the President or the Congress can take up
any subject at any time. A court in the American system is a substantially
passive instrument, to be moved only by the initiative of litigants. 3

Congress is a federal
legislative branch of power of the United States of America. Congress
is divided into two chambers: the House of Representatives which consists of
435 congressmen ( each of them are selected for 2 years), and the Senate which
consists of 100 senators ( 2 senators from each state, selected for 6 years).
Each chamber has a Head of chamber, committees, party factions, administrative
and technical services. For the House of Representatives the head is a Speaker
of the House of Representatives, and for the Senate is President of the Senate

President. The Speaker of the House of Representatives is a third officer of
the state. He can hold the post of the President after Vice-President in case
of the vacancy. United Committees include members of both Chambers of Congress.
These committees coordinate the activity of chambers of Congress in certain
spheres. The crucial role in the legislative activity of the Congress belongs
to the standing committees of the Chambers.

essential requirement for Congress is that of establishing a basic legal
pattern of order for society. This, in turn, leads to the additional
requirements for creating an autonomous legislative organization to make policy
and fir establishing continuing relations with the government bureaucracy and
with the society which is governed. In order to operate as a legislature
capable of resolving conflict, Congress must develop an internal system of
authority and action as well as establish communications with the external

The legislature is a very special type of institution for establishing
order. The fact that it has broad territorial jurisdictions means that a
variety of complex activities can be carried on under the aegis of its
authority. The fact that controls are specifically started in the form of law
means that there is an element of stability and continuity of policy. As a
constituent part of a larger governmental system of authority, Congress may be
said to perform a natural function in the sense that it is necessary for some
institution to be concerned with establishing an ordered relationship between
the various internal systems of action. The interest of Congress in these activities is
shared in various degrees with other institutions within society, the role of
Congress being that of prescribing the rules or creating an ordered pattern of
behavior by which members of society can achieve their various purposes. 

Categories: United States


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