dictionary meaning of ‘Inclusion’
is to take in or consider as part or member of or to embrace. Inclusion is
about membership or belonging to a community. In context to education, it is
restructuring schools as communities where old children can learn. Inclusion provides
more ways for teachers to make learning easy for children. But there is no
standardized procedure to make teachers and schools inclusive.
is about to change in schools to improve the educational system for all
students. Inclusive education practices reflect the changing culture of
contemporary schools with emphasis on active learning, authentic assessment
practices, applied curriculum, multi-level instructional approaches, and
increased attention to diverse student needs and individualization. The claim
is that schools, centers of learning and educational systems must change so
that they become caring, nurturing, and supportive educational communities
where the needs of all students and teachers are truly met. Inclusive schools
no longer provide “regular education” and “special education.
By contrast, inclusion is about the child’s right to
participate and the school’s duty to accept the child. Notably a premium is
placed upon full participation by students with disabilities and upon respect
for their social, civil, and educational rights. Theoretically, feeling
included is not limited to physical and cognitive disabilities, but also
includes the full range of human diversity with respect to ability, language,
culture, gender, age, races and of other forms of human differences.
In this context here it is apt to quote Richard
Wilkinson and Kate Pickett who said, “Student’s performance and behaviour in
educational tasks can be profoundly affected by the way we feel, we are seen
and judged by others. When we expect to be viewed as inferior, our abilities
seem to diminish”.
education provides the places and the catalyst through which general and
special educators, students and parents come together to create quality
democratic schools. Inclusive schools are those designed to meet the
educational needs of all their members with common fluid environments and
activities (Sapon- Shevin, 1996). It
means that special education is no longer defined as a placement but as a
system of support provided to help and address the needs of a subset of
students (Stainback and Stainback, 1996).