The recent decade witnesses the dramatic
development of international anti-globalization movements, which are
characterized by the diversity of their participants and their purposes, the
unevenness of their regional distribution and their organizational anarchy. Over the last few decades,
international anti-globalization movements have been developing dramatically.
The neo-liberalistic globalization has been intensifying the internal economic
clashes in developed countries, widening the economic gap between the North and
the South, damaging the world’s cultural diversity, undermining the sovereignty
of nation-states, which are responsible for the rising of anti-globalization
movements. These are considered to be the main causes of international
anti-globalization movements, the protesters of which call for a globalization
of fairness, humanity, tolerance and sustainability.

       China’s growing economic maelstrom is
inducing foreign censures of anti-globalization nature, which might be used by
some Western hostile forces in conducting anti-China deals. Meanwhile, international
anti-globalization may ignite the people’s anger at problems like unemployment,
polarization, environment degradation and etc, and hence causing China’s own
anti-globalization movements. To try to find a solution to these problems would
be a challenge for China.

 

       Key
words: international anti-globalization movements, impact on China,
solutions.

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       Impact on China
Due to Anti-globalization Movements and

Possible Solutions
towards It Research

Globalization,
a process of global economic integration and growth driven by economic liberal
ideas and policies, has been discussed worldly since the 19th
century. This “double-edged sword” had brought negative impacts and risks while
producing myriad benefits and advantages to both developed and developing
countries, which resulted in a steep rise in anti-globalization movements. On
the other hand, globalization has brought numerous benefits to the developing
countries such as China, including economic, political and military
aspects. China has become the second-largest economy in the world, and its
political impact on global issues cannot be neglected, it is valuable to do a
research about how international anti-globalization movements would influence
China in the future, and how China would response to this issue? With the rapid
process of globalization, the opponents are increasing drastically at the same
time. Correspondingly, the negative impacts on China due to the voice of
anti-globalization have presented, particularly after China joining the WTO.
This issue is not only an important challenge to China’s political and
economical aspects, but also associated with the future development of the
entire world. Anti-globalization movements can influence China both negatively
and positively, from domestic to international aspects. Nevertheless, there are
more negative influences than positive effects on China due to
anti-globalization movements, and reasons including accusation of lowering
domestic employment rate in some western countries, widening gap between the
rich and the poor, monopoly of manufactory factories and damaging environmental
balance, and these will be examined in the following essay.

Literature review

       In Guthrie’s
(2009) article, it mainly focuses on the relationship between China as a world
economic power and globalization. In his reading, there are reliable and
legible examples illustrate how China gradually rises in various aspects like
economic and military. In order to understand and write about
anti-globalization movements, it is necessary to know more about globalization
in which Gutherie(2009) has provided, including the benefits that China gained
from globalization, as well as disadvantages that it accompanied with.
Specifically, the positive outcomes that globalization had brought to the
developing countries are helping developing countries to deal with rest of the
world increase their economic growth and solving the poverty problems in their country.
On the other hand, global issues such as the widening gap between the rich and
the poor, severe environment pollution and losing job opportunities.

       Moreover,
Veltmeyer(2004) examines more about relationship between globalization and
anti-globalization in his article. Some critics of globalization argue that
global corporations , transnational banks, consulting firms, and financial
institutions are controlling the world’s resources and deciding which countries
get rich and which remain poor. Many critics see the globalization process as
uneven or even predatory. Investors and transnational corporations are in
search of the lowest common denominator; namely, cheap labor, fewer rules and
regulations, low-cost commodities, and safe and stable areas in which to invest
or build their production facilities.

       Zheng
(2004) provides numerous stats and examples combined with historical event in
order to illustrate how China has been developing rapidly in last few decades.
Also, it presents both negative and positive impacts on China that
globalization are likely to bring with. Fang et al. (2008) mainly examined how
multinational cooperations in China would response and what kind of specific
strategy they would make towards international anti-globalization movements.

The Formation and Development of International
Anti-globalization Movements

       Over
the last few years, with the rapid process of globalization, negative effects
of globalization has started exposing simultaneously, leading to an extreme
increase in the international anti-globalization movements. From Geneva to
Seattle, and from Bangkok to New York, anti-globalization protesters have
condemned nearly every international meeting in which it convenes.

International Anti-globalization Movements Before
September 11 Attacks

       Although there were several
demonstrations and appointments happened in Berlin, Paris and Madrid from 1988
to 1994, the demonstration occurred in Seattle on November 30, 1999, was
defined as one of the major mobilizations of the entire movements. In 1999, the
World Trade Organization (WTO) convened at the Washington State Convention and
Trade Center in Seattle, and was to be the launch of a new millennial round of
trade negotiations. The police was eventually overwhelmed by approximately 40,000
marchers, and several McDonald’s—a multinational company, symbolizing a typical
product of globalization, were destroyed. The congress was forced to delay 5
hours to convene, and many delegations were not able to attend the first
meeting as well. This demonstration was represented as the largest scale of the
radical protest movement in 20th century, resulting in a symbolic
movement of anti-globalization. International anti-globalization movements
started occurring frequently and expanding its scale dramatically after 1999
Seattle WTO protests, until The September 11 Attacks happened in 2001. During
this period of time, there are some relatively famous international
anti-globalization movements. In February 2000, a large amount of protesters
assembled in Bangkok, while United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
was convening in the same place. They censured WTO, IMF and World Bank, and
required those international financial institutions to make solutions in order
to meet the negative impacts that globalization had brought to the developing
countries. In September 2000, when WTO and World Bank were having meeting in
Prague, there were about 10,000 protesters gathered, castigating that World
Bank and WTO are new methods for global capitalism to control over the third
world countries. They demanded shutting down these international financial
institutions, and cancelling the debt for developed countries. There were about
100 people injured because of the massive march. In October 2000, The Asia-Europe
meeting was held in Seoul, with 20,000 people protested against it. Above all, protester
against globalization often appeared in which the international congress
convened. At that time, not only had the Bretton Woods systems including WTO,
World Bank and IMF focused on promoting the process of globalization, but also had
organizations like G8, the Asia-Europe meeting, the summit of amerces and The
European Union Summit mainly discussed this topic, such as international
economic cooperation, the reconstruction of global economy, protection for
global financial crisis and energy crisis.

 International
Anti-globalization Movements After September 11 Attacks

       After 9/11, the focus on fighting against
terrorism had increased during various international meetings, while the
international anti-globalization movements had decreased. Overall, the amount
of demonstration had relatively decreased, with some new characteristics appeared
are following.

First
of all, traditional international anti-globalization movements had decreased
significantly compared to previous period. Traditional anti-globalization
movements refers to demonstration occurred at the same time and place as the
global conferences convenes. According to statistics, there are almost 30 times
of comparatively large-scale protests happened during 1999—the Seattle WTO
Protests, to September 11 Attacks in 2001. Surprisingly, the demonstration had
dropped to nearly 20 times after 9/11. Secondly, the movements of anti-globalization
and anti-war gradually combined together due to the highly attention paid on
terrorism. Because the United States initiated two wars for anti-terrorism,
despite of opposing voices from the UN and almost countries, causing many
countries and people do not satisfy with America’s decision, protesters of
anti-war gradually join movements of protesters against globalization. Thirdly,
the form of anti-globalization movement was not as violent as before. There
were numerous radical ones while attending movements, however, after 9/11; they
changed their way of demonstration, seeking to protest peacefully and avoiding contradiction
between the police.

Reasons
for the Appearance of Anti-globalization Movements

In
general, most anti-globalization activists do not oppose globalization itself,
but complain about the negative impacts that it brought to the world, such as
drastically increased political right-deviation, polarization between the rich
and the poor, ecological environment deterioration, marginalization of the poor
people and undeveloped countries and global economic bubble. Therefore, all of
these poverty, unfairness, marginalization, ecological crisis, terrorism and
wide-spread of violation lead various people with different motivations to
gather, ultimately organizing a large-scale of anti-globalization activists. Specifically,
there are dominantly three reasons for protesters are not satisfied with the
process and outcomes of globalization. Initially, globalization intensified internal
economic clashes in developed countries. Although developed countries are those
who most benefit from globalization, there are still many disadvantages
addressed on them. The rapid development of international trade and scale expansion
of the developing countries exporting goods to the developed countries,
resulting in the first world countries confront more drastic competition
towards the world. In addition, globalization boosted capital expansion for
MNCs, providing more jobs outside of domestic countries, causing “hollowing out”
for domestic production. Secondly, globalization widened the financial gap
between the North and the South, highlighting the contradiction between them.
Lastly, globalization is also accused of worsening ecological balance.

Impacts
on China Due to International Anti-globalization Movements

So
far, anti-globalization demonstration has not occurred once in China. However,
the influence that movements brought to China should still be paid attention.
In the following essay, both negative and positive effects will be illustrated
accordingly.

From International Perspective

       Positively, anti-globalization movements would
strengthen China’s realization towards gap between rich and poor. In 2012
approximately 1.5 million millionaires lived in China. In 2013 the number
increased further to 2.4 million. Eventually, the number of millionaires is
projected to double again until 2016. However, according to senior government
development official in China, over 82 million Chinese still live on less than
about US$1.25 per day. The data showed that China should pay more attention on
this issue considering for future development. On the contrary, there are more
negative effects addresses on China. The participants of
anti-globalization movements are likely to censure China for lowering
employment rate in some developed countries. After China had established the
Chinese Economic Reform policy, a large amount of transnational cooperation
from developed countries began investing and setting up factories in China,
indicating they transferred part of the job opportunities to China
simultaneously. For example, recently, white-collar workers working in IT
industry from the United States and Europe are flowing into some developing
countries such as China and India in which labor cost is apparently lower,
which leads to the accusation from some labor organization. They claim that job
opportunities should be provided more within their own countries in order to
promote domestic economy instead of others. Moreover, with the advance in manufactory
industry, becoming well-known as “World Factory”, China is more likely to be
accused of monopoly of manufactory industry towards world and job deprivation.
For instance, nearly 1,000 shoe factories and workers burned about $1,160,000 “made
in china” shoes in Spain in 2004. At that time, Spain was under massive
pressure of producing shoe while competing with China, in which labor cost was
at comparative advantage. More specifically, buying a pair of shoes which
imported from China cost only 5 euro in Spain, while costing at least 8 euro to
buy the same product at the same time, meaning China had constantly become a
threat in an extent when comes to manufacturing sector. Thus, some participants
of anti-globalization are possible to blame China for taking over manufacturing
factory so they lost their jobs, due to globalization. Furthermore, with the
increasing demand of natural resources like overseas energy, mineral and lumber
and expanding of import, China had been criticized by environmentalists for
damaging environment.

       Above all,
China is more likely to be attacked by some western capital countries. There is
a high possibility that some developed western countries will utilize
protectionism on China when comes to global trade, claiming that in order to
answer protestors of anti-globalization’s requirement. For example, over the
past years, the Unites States condemned that China had been depriving jobs and
lowering domestic production, and many people asked government to implement
protectionism on China in order to prevent its domestic production. In addition,
some western developed countries can pressure China by utilizing reasons that I
mentioned above. The United States has been requesting China to higher its RMB
exchange rate is a typical example. Some Americans complain that China’s trade
and monetary policy caused a large amount of American people unemployed, asking
the administrative authorities to pressure Chinese government. In April 2004,
the activist of anti-globalization movements in America, the biggest labor
union organization—Production Union Organization, demanded American government
to investigate China according to Trade Regulation Laws and to increase tariff
to 77% when importing good from China.

From Domestic Perspective

       There are also negative impacts on China
from domestic perspective including rise in domestic unemployment rate, widening
gap between the rich and the poor and environment issues. First of all, after
implementing Reform and Opening-up policy, China’s active participation of
globalization created about 170 million jobs for Chinese people. However, in
order to adapt the process of globalization, indispensible reformation of
economic structure in China had also lead to a severe condition in structural unemployment.
For example, in 1992, the population of unemployment in China was 3.93 million
and the unemployment rate was 2.3%. In 1999, the unemployment rate increased to
3.2% and unemployed people increased to 6 million people. In 2003, unemployment
rate rise to 4.3%. In 2016, this number even increased to 5%. Massive unemployment
population in China had always been discussed worldwide; one of the reasons is
after China joining WTO, it is an inevitable process to transform its economic
structure. Secondly, the distensible gap between the rich and the poor in China
cannot be neglected. Last but not least, with China’s rapid development of
industrialization, excessive development of natural resources and abundant
discharge of industrial wastes are becoming severe issues.

Possible Solutions towards Negative Impacts

       For future development, it is inevitable
and challenging for China to think of effective strategies and solutions in
order to meet above negative impacts. In general, global economic trade rules
are controlled and decide by developed countries, and thus address more
benefits for them. China, as a developing country, should not accept all of
those rules and regulation passively, but try to seek to “make” rules. It is
important for China to utilize its influence on global economy, actively gain
advantages for developing countries, attending the process of globalization by “leading”
and “managing”. In addition, China should follow globalization of fairness,
humanity, tolerance and sustainability, promoting and constructing new order of
international political economy by using UN. It is an important step for China
to prevent negative effects from anti-globalization movements. Furthermore,
China should make new strategies in order to meet protectionism from some
western developed countries. As I stated about, anti-globalization movements
are able to affect government’s decision of raising tariffs and changing global
trade policies. Therefore, China should strengthen its foreign policy,
communicating properly with various countries and getting support. Meanwhile,
China should standardize and leading MNCs to prevent them from gaining profits
through inappropriate method, damaging its international image. By utilizing
these methods, lowering possibilities of another massive anti-globalization
movements and confronting difficulties towards impacts on China due o
protestors seem plausible.

Conclusion and Future
Study

       The process of globalization brings both
negative and positive outcomes to whether developed counties and developing countries.
While boosting global economic and communication, it also intensified internal clashes
within developed countries, widening the gap between north and the south and worsening
worldwide environment pollution. It seems like that anti-globalization
movements is an inevitable production accompanied with the process of
globalization. It also transformed and created new characteristic of activists
of anti-globalization movements throughout these year. China, as a new
superpower in the world, must confront the negative impacts and pressure
brought by international anti-globalization movements, conquering difficulties
and obstacles such as accusation from some countries, rise in unemployment rate
and the gap between rich and poor. However, not only China is facing these
issues, but also entire world are challenging making strategies and solutions
towards the impacts. Thus, these issues cannot be neglected for global
development in the future. 

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