Introduction of analysis Participants or units of analysis
The contemporary business world is complex and characterized by a lot of attributes all aimed at achieving success in the business operations.
Competition is a major concern in business and business organizations have to engage in strategic measures to ensure that they attain a competitive advantage in relation to other business enterprises especially those that are involved in production and sale of similar products and services.
Advertisement is one effective strategy that is deemed to play a great role in enhancing an organization’s productivity and profitability through boosting the sales level.
There are different ways through which advertisement can be carried out depending on the results desired and the effectiveness of a given advertising method. The use of sexual appeal is one method. It entails the use of erotic or sexual imagery in advertising with an aim of drawing attention and interest to a particular product or service to enhance its sales (Loyalty & Customers, 2010).
Although a sexual imagery such as a beautiful woman could be used, in most cases, it does not have any connection to the product being advertised. It is usually meant to attract the attention of the potential consumers (Harker, 1998).This piece of work gives an in depth discussion of the effect of sex appeal on commercials. This will be achieved through conducting of a comprehensive study using various research methodologies and analysis strategies.
There are various methods that are available for utilization by researchers while carrying out their studies. Some are effective for use in some contexts while others can only be used in specific settings. For instance, in cases where the study population is relatively high, there is usually a need to have some sampling techniques. The sample chosen should however be as representative as possible to allow for the attainment of effective results.
For the purpose of this assignment, different forms of business organizations will be selected to make a representative sample. Different leaders will be supplied with questionnaires and some engaged in interview sessions where questions that are deemed important in gaining some insight into the topic of discussion will be asked. The questions will be structured in such a manner that the researcher is able to probe adequate information related to the research questions.
Participants or units of analysis
Participants or units of analysis are crucial in any research study. This is because they provide a researcher with the needed information. The information could be deduced through different means for instance interview questions or questionnaires as well as observation where the researcher is actively involved and captures all cues that could in one way or the other add value to the research findings.
This study will be restricted to business organizations that rely on commercials as a way of increasing their sales as well as media houses that are involved in airing the commercials.
The main participants in the study will be leaders or heads of various departments for instance sales department in the selected business organizations and media houses. These leaders will be helpful in provision of the necessary information which will help in understanding the situation in the business arena. Twelve business organizations will be studied; six of them will be large organizations while six will be of medium size.
Setting and materials
Setting and materials are critical elements in any research study. They help in the understanding and obtaining of appropriate information capable of solving the particular research problem(s). Setting entails the location or the atmosphere in which the research is carried out.
Different setting facilitate research in different ways and hence the need to select an appropriate setting in order to obtain effective results. On the other hand, materials entail all the essentials that are required to carry out a given research. It could entail various information materials and other supplies needed. Various stationery will be required for instance those used in conducting the survey study and interviews. Tape and video tapes machines and recorders will be useful in the interview sections.
A procedure entails a systematic and methodological manner in which research is carried out. There are different procedures that could be applied in a given research study depending on how efficient and effective they are deemed to be.
Whatever the case, the procedures should allow the researcher to attain appropriate results that will help in answering the research questions as well as ascertaining the research hypothesis. A survey will be carried where different data collection methods will be used especially questionnaires and interviews. The mixed method approach to research will be the most appropriate way to evaluate the situation.
The qualitative research will be used to establish the organizations’ viewpoint and assessment of the impact of the sex appeal concept on commercials and how it affects advertisement and business in general. This will be done through a quantitative questionnaire based on a Likert scale.
The questionnaire will be implemented to establish the effectiveness of sex appeal in enhancing sales. To allow provision of appropriate information by the respondents, they will be acknowledged that their information will be kept confidential throughout the entire research process.
Open ended questions will be useful in data collection in this study. This method of data collection will be very helpful in collecting qualitative data from the selected sample of the population. However, this will be done with a lot of care to avoid any negative feedback. The respondents in this case may be tempted to exaggerate the information they give to favor their companies or else show how successful they have been.
Questionnaires will be developed based on assumptions of successful literature on the effect of sex appeal on commercials. The assumptions in the research study will be based on the fact that sex appeal enhances commercials and business at large through attracting more potential customers who later become loyal customers to the particular products and services.
There will also be some interviews. All the interviews will be conducted by graduate research assistants with most of the interviews being conducted in person so as to get hold of all cues, even the nonverbal ones. Data collection through interview will be conducted through face to face interviews with the respondents.
This is where the respondents will be asked questions by the interviewer. In this case, the interviewer will ask questions to the respondents and then record what they respond. While conducting these interviews, a random sample will be selected from the entire population. This will help in overcoming the problem of data biasness.
Research design is considered to be an incredibly crucial element in carrying out any form of research irrespective of the scope or context. It entails the structure of enquiry or how that various information and data needed for the research study is to be gathered.
Any data collection method could be used in any research design. For the sake of this study, a combination of descriptive and explanatory research designs will be used and different data collection methods will be used, as mentioned earlier. The research design is aimed at minimizing the chance of having incorrect inferences from data.
In any given research, there exist both dependent as well as independent variables. A variable is a unit that is measurable. A dependent variable is something or a unit that largely depends on other factors while an independent variable is a variable that stands on its own, that is, it is not in any way affected by other factors or variables that are measured in a research study.
The variables consist of the measurable or what is being coded. For the case of this research the commercials or business adverts are the dependent variables as their effectiveness are influenced by various factors such as the elements used in the adverts. The sex appeal or imagery could be considered as independent variables since they are the ones affecting the commercials.
It is after carrying out a research study that some results are attained. The results help in answering the research questions as well as identifying some gaps present in a particular line of study. This therefore assists in the provision of the way forward or else some recommendations that ought to be taken in order to either solve an existing problem or save a situation.
In this section, the type of data analysis used in the research is illustrated and the rationale for statistical procedures given. The researcher also provides the reader with the major findings that are associated with dependent variable (s).
It is after the data collection that the researcher will embark on data analysis. There are several methods which will be applied in data analysis. This analysis will include a precise documentation of the field data. The researcher will collect data from various sources. This data will then be compiled and compared. It is therefore advisable for the researcher to ensure that the data collected is precise.
The data collected from interviews and reports will be examined at this stage. In this process, certain patterns will be identified as well as connections and similarities. This analysis will also identify any deviation from what is expected. This way, the researcher will be able to identify some critical areas which need some adjustments.
Some of the findings that were obtained in regard to the effect of sex appeal on commercials include the following. Advertisers use the spiritual, emotional and biological aspects of sexuality to attract customers. The concept is sold along with a product.
Despite the fact that the use of female models and imagery is believed to attract potential male consumers, this research study has shown that a majority of purchases are made by women. This therefore shows that although sex appeal arouses some emotions, it does not influence purchase decision much (Reichert, 2007).
Sex appeal works through playing upon the biological needs of individuals and instincts. The concept of sex appeal has gained a lot of application in today’s advertisements. Through incorporation of sex appeal in the advertisements, the different business organizations that were selected for this study showed some slight improvements in productivity and profitability through increased sales.
It was however difficult to ascertain the exact functioning of the sex appeal. The appeal has short term success through immediate attraction, particularly among males, which may not necessarily influence the purchasing actions (Waller, 1999).
After attaining results from the study through the participants and units, it is necessary to have an in depth discussion in an effort to bring together all the gained information and insight in line. This will allow for coming up with effective inferences and conclusions that are necessary to improve current situations or even advocate for some way forward in regard to the topic of research.
Some of the findings that were gathered through the study include; Sex appeal works through playing upon the biological needs of individuals and instincts, advertisers use the spiritual, emotional and biological aspects of sexuality to attract customers and that a majority of purchases fuelled by sex appeal are made by women, among others. The findings are quite important since they offer alternate explanations to all the concepts that surround the issue of sex appeal and its use as an advertisement element.
Despite the fact that the research study has offered us with relevant information with regard to sex appeal and its effect on commercials, it is also have some limitation. This includes concentration on the positive attributes associated with sex appeal as an element of advertisement. However, the effectiveness of sex appeal on commercials is questionable.
This is because despite the fact that sex appeal plays a great role in attracting potential customers, it only brings about short term success and in most cases, it does not influence the consumers’ buying decisions and actions. The effectiveness also depends on a particular product for instance, cosmetic and beauty products could be favored by the use of sex appeal. This is due to the fact that there is a close connection between the products and sexuality (Severn and Belch, 1990).
As a result of the limitations and the desire to have a comprehensive understanding of the concept of sex appeal and its effect on commercials, the researcher ought to come up with strategic measures through which the study should be improved. Among the recommendations is the combination of different appeals, for instance, having some erotic and factual attributes of a product.
From the above discussion, it is evident that sex appeal is a critical aspect in today’s commercials. It is a concept that have gained a lot of application as people tend to associate themselves with some sexual imagery and this way, they get to purchase the products and services that are linked with the imagery through advertisement (Serendip, 2008).
Harker, D. (1998). Achieving Acceptable Advertising. International marketing review, 15,101-118
Loyalty & Customers. (2010). Sex Appeal as a Promotion Strategy. Retrieved 25 November 2011 from
Reichert, T. (2007). Does Sex in Advertising Work?: A Review of Scholarly Research Informed by Professional Opinion. Advertising & Society Review Vol. 8, No. 2
Serendip (2008). Sex and Advertising: An “Organic” Experience. Retrieved 25 November 2011 from
Severn, J,E.G. and Belch, A.M. (1990).The Effects of Sexual and Non-Sexual Advertising Appeals and Information Level on Cognitive Processing and Communication Effectiveness. Journal of Advertising Vol. 19, No. 1 pp. 14-22
Waller, S.(1999). Attitudes towards Offensive Advertising. Journal of consumer marketing.16, 288- 294