The The newspaper article from Harper’s Weekly states

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The Ordeal of Reconstruction 1865-1877 Moderate and radical republicans expanded political opportunities and other leadership roles to former slaves during their attempts to integrate the defeated South back into the Union following the Civil War. The Fourteenth Amendment, Fifteenth Amendment, and the Union League reflected the increasing rights for freedmen during Reconstruction. The document, “What Shall Become of the Freedmen?” argues that freedmen have skills equal to those of whites and have proven themselves skilled in various professions including soldiers, laborers, and  performers. The author’s point of view as a white person signifies the start of increasing rights for blacks since he believes that freedmen can be elevated after slavery with proper instruction, as seen through the passage of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendment and the establishment of the Union League. The Fourteenth Amendment, ratified in 1868, guaranteed civil rights to freedmen and prohibited the refusal of these rights without due process. The Fifteenth Amendment prohibits the state and federal government from denying citizens the right to vote based on race. This amendment directly fostered the development of the Union League, an organization established by African Americans that educated southern blacks about civic life, promoted their interests before government and employers, and campaigned for Republican candidates. However, moderate and radical Republicans efforts to empower blacks politically faced white resistance in the form of the Ku Klux Klan and the white Redeemers. Although freedman rights hindered by the emergence of the Klu Klux Klan and the reinstatement of Redeemer government. Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age 1869-1896Although African Americans were granted voting rights, citizenship, and equal protection under the law in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, political tactics, violence, and  segregation worked to remove these protections.The Ku Klux Klan, Jim Crow laws, and the grandfather clause disenfranchised blacks and subjected them to a second-class citizenship, without equal protection. The newspaper article from Harper’s Weekly states that the Ku Klux Klan was a secret anti-black terrorist society that emerged after the Civil War. The purpose of this document to warn people about the Ku Klux Klan reveals their methods to strip blacks of their rights by using terrorist violence to disenfranchise blacks. Jim Crow laws, or systematic state level legal codes of segregation, enforced racial segregation in public places, providing blacks with inferior facilities and treating blacks as second-class citizens, violating the Fourteenth Amendment which guaranteed equal protection under the law. In addition, many southern states established the grandfather clause in the 1890s, which exempted people whose ancestors voted in 1860 from voting requirements, such as literacy tests and poll taxes. Since slaves could not vote at this time, this clause guaranteed to many whites the right to vote while denying it to blacks. Despite the efforts of the Reconstruction, the South remained unchanged after The Civil War. Although African Americans had equal rights as whites on paper, this was not widely practiced in the South, as seen through the terrorism of the Klu Klux Klan, and the Jim Crow laws enforcing segregation, and the grandfather clause in voting.

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