The kilometers) ,an artificial island character is connected
The Kingdom of Bahrain is a group of islands off the central southern shores of the Arabian Gulf. It is an archipelago comprises 40 islands with a total area of about 710 square kilometers) . The largest of these islands is the island of Bahrain where the capital Manama is located, representing approximately 85 percent of the total area of the country. The second largest area goes back to the southern archipelago known as Hawar ( 50 kilometers square) which is not far from the coast of Qatar, followed by the unmanned island called Um-alnaasan(19 square kilometers) and the island of Muharraq populated heavily(18 square kilometers) and connected by bridges in Bahrain, and finally Sitra (10 square kilometers) ,an artificial island character is connected to Bahrain by other bridges, as for the rest of the small islands ministers and coral reefs constitute the rest of the terrestrial mass , or about(5.1 %) of the total area.
According to the criteria adopted to determine the degree of drought, Bahrain is considered an arid country as a result of major changes felt by climatic conditions, it is characterized by a very high temperature and irregular rainfall, which are often scarce. Bahrain is also known by high level of humidity due to the country’s surrounding waters of the Arabian Gulf. Bahrain is considered one of the most densely populated countries in the world, with a total area of 760 Km2. The population growth rate and urbanization are increasing rapidly. The estimated population of the kingdom in 2015 was about 1.377 million with a population growth rate of 1.118 27from previous reprort.
The availability of Fresh water is a crucial issue globally, as the water is the main component of life not only a vital and a strategic resource. In addition to centralized water for the creation and continuity of life; water is a fundamental pillar in all areas of comprehensive development. The issue of water availability returned to cause concern rising globally as a result of the population boom that occurred during the last century, and is accompanied by a steady increase in consumption, and increase the life of agricultural or industrial activities, as well as the pollution associated with indicators. Given the limited resources at the level of the world, water scarcity has become a global issue, and a growing concern about its consequences on the fateful level of development of the human history of the future.
The proportions of renewable water resources in the Gulf region are almost non-existent, making the annual per capita water levels the lowest in the world. If the population has increased steadily in the past 30 years, it is expected to double again over the next 30 years; as well as increasing the rate of growth of cities, which includes the vast majority of the population of the region at the same time lacks substantial proportion to safe water; it is expected to worsen the problem exponentially over the coming years. In Exchange for the scarcity and declining renewable water resources, water consumption rates in the Gulf is the highest in the world. Bahrain, for example (daily consumption 400 l/hrs.), gets more than twice the per capita consumption of water in Britain (daily consumption 213 l/hrs.)
Due to the scarcity of water resources in the Arabian Gulf region countries went to look for new water sources; the Gulf States became one of the largest regions of the world’s productive non-conventional water, either by sea water treatment or by sewage purification and reuse of agricultural production water. Although the development of these non-traditional sources of water costs exorbitant amounts when compared to conventional water resources; however, it will have a significant depends on it in the future because of the growing demand for water over time.
Since the availability of fresh water is a global issue, many researches and studies were conducted trying to solve this problem by proposing new solutions and creative ideas since the demand on water is continuous . This report will summarize a study that may solve this issue by harvesting the by-product water from the air conditioning systems. The study will include the water consumption and production data in Bahrain . Also, similar published studies that have been conducted by different researchers will be collected and clarified in this report. ……… to be continue)