Terrorism in their hearts for others. There

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One fine morning you turn on
your TV, begin browsing T.V channels. Abruptly, you stop on an exceptionally
prevalent news channel featuring that some gathering of oppressors have
assaulted a school and begin firing on little youngsters, slaughtering them in
a gigantic number, you begin to feel something. On another fine morning, changing
between the channels you find that a religious place have been shelled,
bringing about passing of many people. This time you were going on a plane and
you hear a debilitating announcement that the plane have been hijacked by a few
oppressors and they have requested to discharge an accomplice of them who was
caught by the government some time back. You all of a sudden will experience an
unusual inclination upon yourself that is the sentiment terror. Viewing a
recording of a bomb impact or a mass executing of innocents, you get a similar
inclination, and every single such action that influences you to feel fear is
known as ‘Terrorism’. You may find the definition of terrorism
in the dictionary as, ‘the utilization of brutality and dangers to threaten or
constrain, particularly for political purposes.’
Terrorism means the use of aggression to fright the noble nation. Those who are
spreading the terrorism are called terrorists. Terrorists are everywhere and
there are those people who are not patriot and they have no mercy in their
hearts for others. There are many brutality that are causing of terrorism like
bomb blasting, target killing, hijacking, etc. All these ways enhance the
fright in our hearts and deadly disturb our lives and when in any country these
things raise their heads the peace is gone and there is the arrival of fear. So
it can be stated that the terrorism is the mother of all the social evils and
we should take up the call against this cause that will destroy the abilities
of upcoming generation. The word terrorism, in and
of itself, was first used during the French Revolution’s Reign of Terror
(1793–1794). In the Reign of Terror, a group of rebels, the Jacobins, used the
term when self-reflexively revealing their own actions in, and explanations of,
the French Revolution. The Reign of Terror was a campaign of large-scale
violence by the French state; between 16,000 and 40,000 people were killed in a
little over a year. Over the years we find more than 200 different definitions
of the word terrorism. Schmid and Jongman were two researchers from
Netherlands, who conducted the research to find out the best definition of
terrorism. In their results they identified the main components as the concept
of violence emerged in 83.5% of definitions; political goals emerged in 65%;
causing fear and terror in 51%; arbitrariness and indiscriminate targeting in
21%; and the victimization of civilians, non-combatants, neutrals, or outsiders
in 17.5%.

Some known scholars
and institutions define terrorism as follows,
-Walter Liqueur: “Terrorism is the use or the
threat of the use of violence, a method of combat, or a strategy to achieve
certain targets… It aims to induce a state of fear in the victim that is
ruthless and does not conform to humanitarian rules… Publicity is an essential
factor in the terrorist strategy.”
– Bruce Hoffman: “Terrorism is ineluctably political in aims and
motives, violent—or, equally important, threatens violence, designed to have
far-reaching psychological repercussions beyond the immediate victim or target,
conducted by an organization with an identifiable chain of command or
conspiratorial cell structure (whose members wear no uniform or identifying
insignia), and perpetrated by a subnational group or non-state entity.”
– Yonah Alexander: terrorism is “the use of violence against random
civilian targets in order to intimidate or to create generalized pervasive fear
for the purpose of achieving political goals.”
– League of Nations Convention Definition of Terrorism (1937): terrorist
acts are “all criminal acts directed against a State and intended or calculated
to create a state of terror in the minds of particular persons or a group of
persons or the general public.”
– U.S. Department of Defence Definition of Terrorism: terrorism refers
to “the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to
inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in
the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological.”
– U.S. Department of State: terrorism is “premeditated, politically
motivated violence perpetrated against non-combatant targets by subnational
groups or clandestine state agents.”

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We can compare the
difference between the terrorism from the start uptil now by these four waves
of terrorism, these waves basically tells us that how the terrorism have
evolved along with time. The First Wave was in the late nineteenth and mid
twentieth century. The Second Wave was the colonial wave, restricted to
national geological limits from 1921 until today. The Third Wave was the
contemporary wave; it presented universal psychological warfare, crossing
national limits, which started in the 1960s. The September 11, 2001 fear based
oppressor assaults offered ascend to the Fourth Wave of fear based oppression
(both for the U.S. what’s more, countries around the world). The Fourth Wave is
symbolized by religious avocation for slaughtering, global scope, unparalleled
shocking strategies and weapons, and reliance on innovations of advancement.
The last comprises of correspondences, simplicity of worldwide travel (i.e.,
moving crosswise over fringes), and openness to funds and WMDs (weapons of mass
devastation). In the Fourth Wave, terrorism has achieved a worldwide stage. The
utilization of any weapon is reasonable.
Now that we know what terrorism actually is and how have it evolved in along
with the time, we will move toward its impacts. Terrorism have its impacts
nationally and internationally as well, some of the major impacts that
terrorism causes is the disruption in a country’s prosperity and sovereignty.
Along with that it creates an image of negativity among the whole world for the
victimized state. Terrorism causes a state many of its precious lives, apart
from that impacting it socially, economically and politically.

Any discussion concerning acts of terror has to
begin with the September 11, 2001 attack.  By any measure, it was the most
brazen and deadliest terrorist attack in recorded history.  Initiated by
an extremist organization named Al Qaeda, and its leader
Osama bin Laden, the attack led to America’s current War on

The attack itself was a coordinated affair: nineteen members of Al
Qaeda managed to hijack four airliners.  Two of these planes were crashed
into New York City’s World Trade Centre.  A third plane was crushed into
the Pentagon in Washington DC.  The fourth plane, which is believed to
have been headed for targets in Washington DC as well, crashed into a field in
Summerset County, Pennsylvania, after passengers attempted to regain control of
the plane from the hijackers. This attack resulted in loss of lives equating to
a huge number of more than 2990 and injuries to nearly 9000 people. According
to the Institute for the Analysis of Global Securities, the economic loss
suffered by USA was of four aircrafts valued $385 million, the destruction of
major buildings costed from $3 billion to $4.5 billion, the damage to pentagon
equalled $1 billion and the property and infrastructure damage was equal to $10
billion to $13 billion. This was not the only impact of 9/11, the major and the
most dominant impact of 9/11 terrorism was the social one, which changed the
image of Muslims around the world. Just because a terrorist organization,
Al-Qaeda, that self-proclaimed to be Muslims were involved in this attack the
social impact caused Muslims all over the United States to suffer creating a
social discrimination among Islam and other religions, while the religion of
Islam, advocates freedom, peace and mutual agreement and admonishes aggression.
The following verses make it very clear.

“And do not aggress; GOD dislikes the
aggressors”. (Quran 5:87)

“You shall resort to pardon, advocate tolerance, and disregard the ignorant”.
(Quran: 7:199)

“You shall not kill any person, for GOD has
made life sacred — except in the course of justice.” (Quran17:33)


this general and worldwide concept of terrorism and its impacts, lets inspect
Pakistan, Pakistan is the country
most affected by terrorism in the world after Iraq, but if the severity of the
incidents is considered, it even surpasses the Middle Eastern nation, according
to a policy document on internal national security.

draft of National Internal Security Policy (NISP) 2013-2018, currently being
fine-tuned by Interior Minister Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan before presentation to
the cabinet, describes the scenario as dangerous, posing an existential threat
to the integrity and sovereignty of the state.

2001 to 2013, there were 13,721 incidents in Pakistan which is marginally less
than Iraq. From 2001 to 2005, there were 523 terrorist incidents in Pakistan
but from 2007 to November 2013, the total number of incidents has risen to

the number of suicide bombings between 2001 and 2007 stood at 15 only, but from
2007 to November last year, suicide attacks jumped to 358 – the highest
anywhere in the world.

to data released by the US National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and
Responses for Terrorism (Start), Pakistan led the chart with 1,404 terrorist
attacks in 2012, surpassing Iraq (1,271). Even Afghanistan was behind Pakistan
at number three with 1,023 incidents.

Pakistan is a state that has
constantly been fighting with terrorism. It has turned into a migraine for
organization and a bad dream for open. However, it is a worldwide issue yet
Pakistan needs to hold up under its burden. Pakistan’s contribution in the War
on Terror has facilitated to fuel the fire. We are confronting war like
circumstance against the fear based oppressors. This overwhelming circumstance
is caused because of a few variables. These variables includes social injustice,
financial dissimilarity, political instability, religious narrow mindedness and
furthermore outer hands or worldwide tricks. A modest bunch of individuals who
have their wicked interests to satisfy, have taken incalculable innocent lives
as well as shredded the genuine picture of Islam before the world through their
terrible demonstrations. Terrorist acts like suicide bombings have turned into
a standard of the day. Because of these assaults Pakistan is experiencing
ingrained misfortune running from civil to monetary. Individuals have turned
out to be numerical figures, increased in numbers after small time span. Terrorists
have infected everyplace including Bazars, mosques, instructive organizations,
workplaces, lodgings, no place is protected any longer.

major causes of this terrorism in Pakistan are,

Injustice, illiteracy, poverty and dissatisfaction are the key actors in the
causes that breed terrorism in Pakistan, when people are not given justice they
have no option other than to opt for violent actions, hence injustice drags
them to the swamp of terrorists organizations. More than one in five men aged
15 to 24 is unable to read and write, such high illiteracy rate has made
Pakistan vulnerable to terrorism. Province of Baluchistan and the tribal areas
have been neglected and resulting in the major source of terrorist organization
setup. Poverty harbour terrorism as it is said that, ‘a hungry man is an angry
man.’ Majority of people in Pakistan live below the poverty line. In the
extreme situation some reach the level of extremism and even commit suicide,
terrorists can easily hire their services and they easily became prey for them.
Dissatisfaction against the rules and norms of a country or a state even lead
towards terrorism, a person thinks he is being deprived of his rights and is
being humiliated, he has been convicted as wrongly prisoned and his life has
not been compensated. Such person joins an organization, whose aim is to
destroy his thought even more.

The soviet Afghanistan war was the most basic occasion in charge of spreading
militancy and intolerance in Pakistan. A major change that adjusted the very
character of Pakistani society happened after foundation of the soviet
supported socialist administration in Afghanistan. The result of the soviet
withdrawal uncovered the harm, change of viciousness and Weaponisation into
Pakistani society. It eventually tormented Pakistan with another pattern
normally alluded as “Kalashnikov Culture” and

2, Religious Madrassah isn’t something new for the
Islam or our nation. In any case, after Russian invasion on Afghanistan it took
another dimension. They were being utilized as enlistment habitats for jihadis.
A great many Mujahedeen were prepared and sent to Afghanistan for purported
jihad. After the fall of Russia, a sizeable number of the jihadis who came back
to Pakistan got engaged with terrorist militant exercises.

 Religious intolerance is another factor which
is stoking the fire of terrorism. Youth, taught through religious Madrassahs,
are influenced with outrageous thoughts. They wind up noticeably bigoted
towards different religions and even different factions of their own religion.
They force their own particular extraordinary thoughts and vent their
enthusiasm exhaustive rough activities. Narrow mindedness makes society wild.
It is demonstrating destruction for social agreement, political steadiness, and
financial development.

this religious radicalism took another state of psychological warfare after
9/11. After the occurrence of 9/11, suicide shelling in Pakistan has turned
into a standard of the day. The American intrusion and control of Afghanistan,
and in addition the military operation in Pakistan, alongside the American
automaton assaults, have served to fuel religious radicalism prompting brutal
response. The breakdown of state structures in Afghanistan made a void which
was immediately filled by gatherings and people who willingly volunteered
proceed with the lost fight. Some of them likewise meddled into Pakistani
ancestral regions, consequently welcoming the US dismay. Flushing out these
outside contenders by Pakistani security powers made Pakistan a fight ground,
as remote activists and some of their neighbourhood has, held hands to counter
the security powers. The drone strikes have expanded hostile to Americanism in
Pakistan culture and the locale. The terrorists have utilized full damage that
they can cause to the environment. Groups of individuals murdered in
inadvertent blow-back end up noticeably perfect nursery for suicide bombers. In
Pakistan culture drone attacks are famously accepted to have caused much more civil
personnel causalities than is really the case. The perseverance of these
assaults on A Pakistani area is consistently making open shock and estranging
individuals from government and Army. The drone is a strategic weapon and has
positively given great outcomes strategically to help coalition forces operation
on their sides of the border yet deliberately history has numerous unanswered

is the only country in the world which has paid the highest amount against
terrorism, both in financial and human life terms, yet it is accused of
sponsoring terrorism. The incident of APS, Peshawar attack is the biggest example
of the huge loss done by terrorism, yet, internationally it gets accused of
sponsoring terrorists.

if we examine closely terrorism is not only the problem for Pakistan but it is
a matter of concern of every country and every one must unite against the terrorist
organisations around the globe. There are a nmber of ways in which we can
counter terrorism one of which is to use peace and spreading awareness rather
than using military to ultimately double the number of terrorists.  The present
problem of terrorism is based on an ideology and an ideology cannot be countered
or killed through legal action or by mere condemnation. We have to develop a
counter-ideology to overcome it.

to UNESCO, “Violence begins from the mind”. It must, therefore, be uprooted
from the mind itself. This goes directly to the root cause of terrorism.
Therefore, in order to eliminate this root cause we need to initiate our
efforts by beginning from the right starting point. And this starting point is
the re-engineering of minds of individuals by taking them away from the culture
of violence and bringing them closer to the culture of peace. n order
to explain the importance of the above, let us state two parallel examples from
history. One pertains to the American campaign against Communist Russia and the
other refers to the American campaign against Saddam-led Iraq. Both Communist
Russia and Iraq were declared enemies of the United States of America, but
while the US was successful in curbing the menace of Communist Russia, the same
America failed to cope with the menace of Saddam-led Iraq. The reason behind
this difference was that America met the Russian challenge at an ideological
level, while it opted for military action against Saddam’s Iraq.

            If we examine the history, it can
be seen that the peaceful methods have been proven far more effective than the violent
ones. Japan
is an excellent example of using the peaceful method. Japan’s industrial
cities, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, were destroyed by the atom bombs in 1945. After
the holocaust, Japan abandoned violence and adopted a peaceful course, which it
termed as a reverse course for its national development. And as a result,
within forty years, Japan rapidly became a great economic power of the world. But
peace is not the only way, one must use strategy and arm muscle where

of the ways which we think can eliminate terrorism are:

Stop the Flow of
Terrorist Funds: Stop the rich countries
that fund construction of religious schools without proper background checks.
Pressure them through diplomatic channels to fund charities and religious
schools only after proper verification and certification that they aren’t
indulging in any radical propaganda and brainwashing their students to wage
holy wars. Also, improve banking laws at home as well as in developing
countries to ensure that fanatics don’t benefit from lax regulations and
circumvent the system by getting funds to their plans.

Securing Defenses: There is no alternative to this. Fact is there will
always be people out there who want to harm you and it is on you to defend your
country by securing it as best you can. Stricter screening of people who come
into your country would be required. This doesn’t mean one has to close one’s
doors to everyone; however, one should at least keep an eye out for undesirable
radicals who mean no good.

Make Aid Accountable:
Developed countries give millions of dollars to countries such as Pakistan, for
example, in the name of “economic aid.” Well, it is a good thing to
give aid, but shouldn’t this aid be monitored and the recipient countries made
accountable as to how they have spent this money? It seems most countries who
give aid just think that they have done a good job giving the aid. They leave
it at that. Especially if these countries are ruled by corrupt leaders; all
this aid has basically gone either into the pockets of these leaders or gone
into affiliated extremist groups, who might in fact come back and bite the very
hand that feeds them. History is testimony to these mistakes yet lessons are
never learned.

Terrorism is a threat not only to one country but to
the whole world, it is a threat for every individual living in any state and
now is the time to take steps to remove it once and for all. A number of ways
are described above about how terrorism can be countered. Terrorism can only be
encountered if we start working against it from grass root level. Every individual
has a role to play against this war against terrorism. If we don’t take necessary
steps today there would be more attacks like 9/11, APS (Peshawer), Beslan
school hostage crisis, 2007 Yazidi communities’ bombings and much more.





















1, www.iags.org/costof911.html
2, https://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/51172_ch_1.pdf

3, http://www.cssforum.com.pk/css-compulsory-subjects/essay/essays/54746-essay-terrorism-pakistan-its-causes-impacts-remedies.html


Categories: Strategy


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