Task 1


Nestle is a Swiss company and one of the largest food and drink
company in the world, It is been ranked on 72 no. on the Fortune Global 500.
They have variety of products which includes bottled water, baby food, cereal ,
pet food and snacks etc .They have 447 factories across the globe and operate
in 194 countries  with more then 300,000
labor employed.Its headquarter is located in Vevey, Vaud .


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Ethics can be defined as a set of moral principle that needs to be
taken into account when a company or an individual is in a process of achieving
their tasks. Nowadays due to increase in consumer awareness most business
focuses on impact of operation that would affect the business environment so
they can promote their social value which would help them to achieve good image
in the market. Most business has their own code of ethics so the team can be
guided through and business can be flourishing

Here are few theoretical ethical

Theory: This theory is developed by Immanuel Kant. He stated that the
actions are much more important than the result of the actions which are
acceptable morally or not. We can take example if a person is carrying a gun
with him without a license which means he broke the moral principle as he has
done something which is illegal which can lead him to be accountable towards
law. In this theory he also stated that the action taken by the individual must
be morally correct and ethical which causes them to achieve responsibility and
sense of duty that need to take care off. Teleological
Theory of Ethics : This theory helps us to know the penalty about the
action of operations and the result of that action .However it also advise
about what decision is need to made so that the operation can be manage
carefully Utilitarianism
Theory : Jeremy Bentham is the creator of utilitarianism theory, he states that the best step
is the one who make the most of the utility and it is consider as moral ethical
when one produces supreme amount of good for the most people. Rights Theory
:  From the word right we can easily
understand it what the theorist want to say .Right theory can be defined as
when a decision is going to make it should be in the favor of people thus the
action then can be consider as ethically correct. Human right ,contractual
right and legal right is also part of this theory ,legal right is considered as
every individual has right to vote, Freedom of speech is considered as human
right and a contract between the lender and borrower is known as contractual
right.  When discussing the theoretical ethics approach in Nestle, It can be describe as to look
over the action while making goods so they can get refrain from any unethical
work rather than looking in to the final product, They need to imply the right
theory so every employees would get their rights and also the investor who
purchased their share would also get profits which is consider as contractual
right. (1.2) Absolute ethics also
known as moral absolution, it means that there is only one law which
needs to be implied to all the people no matter what the circumstances are. It
believe that there are things which is totally wrong or right even they know
what the consequences were but still they need to face the penalty for it for
example a murdering someone is never justified no matter what culture and  he belongs to. They still need to charge him
for killing someone however it has many disadvantages for example a poor woman
need to feed her hungry child and the only way she can do is to steal the food
from the market but this can cause her jail because in absolute ethics crime is
crime no matter what the reason is. Relativism ethics on
the other hand believes that there
is something wrong or right .It is concerned more with outcome. It judge the
things relative to what the reason was which means it take every person point
of view into account for example abortion is wrong across the globe but if a
poor mother who lives alone and don’t have money to take care of her baby then
they would allow the abortion . This theory is based on that every person truth
and right can be different from one another because of their culture or any
other circumstances. The difference
between absolute and relative ethics is that absolute ethics means that there is universal law which tells us
that the actions are either wrong or right. However in relative ethics there is
no universal law and the action can be turned out to be either wrong or right
based on the scenario or consequences which 
means they can be change. Nestle is pretty
famous about its absolute ethics where they give equals right to every member
of their team to participate and when it comes to relative ethic ,Nestle
distribute wages differently basis on what the age and gender of a person is (1.3)One of the key things to bear in mind that ethical issue
are everywhere because in 21th century almost all companies faces multitude of
ethical issue. An ethical issue can be defined as a problem that requires a
company to choose between the substitute that must be evaluated as ethical and
unethicalHere are some of the ethical issue that comes in business:

issue:  It is one of the most crucial
issue of ethics that business faces. It consist of trust with the customers and
how a company can conducts its affair with sincerity and to treat every client
fairly. When a  customer get to know that
the particular company are doing their operation in most ethical way, they
would ultimately going to trust that business so in short we can say relationship
between company and customer can be a key determine to your organization
successSupplier and
customer relationship is a part of fundamental where it tells us that the
business should need to adopt the ethical requirement while dealing with their supplier
and healthy customer relationship is equally as important in order to increase
the growth of an organization.Employment
regulations:  It shows the relation
of employer with its employee. Employment regulation are secured by the
government who helps the employees contracts issues by ensuring that the
transfer of employee contract should need to be secure anyhow and how they can
protect the takeover of a contract from another organization . This mean that
employer should need to treat their employee with respect and  honor so they can feel secure in the business
and especially an organization job is to pay redundancy payment to their
employee . In 21st century a lot of company now take employment
regulation as it one of its main step because the society knows the regulation
of an employee so the companies are more aware and provide the best environment
to their employeessHealth
and safety : It’s a manager to ensure that every member of an organization
have proper facilities like water and food and they need to make their
employees to work in safer environment so the interest of the employees should
be met and they need also to take care of basic need of employees for example
decent salary etc.Diversity
issue: According to HSBN it says that ”world is rich with full of cultures
and every person should be treated equally with respect”  We can say a company is ethical when they
recruit diverse workforce and give them equal opportunity  in a workplace which gives employee sense of
security and so every individual can enjoy a respectful workforce.





Moral agent can be defined as individual or company who can take
ethical decision of their own and putting them in to action. Their decisions
are taken into accounts by government which makes an individual or organization
accountable if their decision are being unethical and gives negative effects to
the environment.

From past few decades moral
agency is assigned to those who are eligible or responsible for it however person
who is below 16 and an adult who is mentally ill may have no capacity while the
adult with no major issue of health can be held as a moral agent.

Grupo Bimbo is a Mexican multi-national bakery and also one of the
most Ethical company in the world published by Ethisphere Institute.

As we can read from above
paragraph they work ethically in the market so Grupo Bimbo act as a moral agent
,the Bimbo usually make their own ethical decision which help them to achieve
their tasks


During 1980s there was economic
downturn which led many companies to collapse because the managers used
autocratic style of leadership that delegated all the power to higher authority,
which de motivated the work force. The Directors and Manager felt wrong about their
decision so they need new plans that would help their companies to still
operate. All the manager from across the world came and setup a meeting where
they introduce employee empowerment and involvement that would encourage the
workforce to do their task and let the companies to get back into operations.

Employee empowerment and
involvement is a practice that company manager used to let the employee take
decision in business. This would make them feel more secure, having sense of
responsibility and there would be more productivity of goods. The CEO or the
manager delegates some authority to the employees to get the task done.


Task 3

United airlines was found in 1926 and it is also known as united is one of the world largest
airline companies when measured by revenue. There headquarter is located in
Chicago .It operates in many different countries and it operates largest international
and domestic route with an broad presence in Asia. It has 9 airline hubs
located in different countries San Francisco, Los Angeles, Chicago and many
more. There are more than 86,000 people employed in this business.


Ethics  can be defined as a principle who determine
what is bad and good in human affairs while 
ethical consideration deals with public and individual levels, the way
that if some person is going to get affected by other person merit ethical
consideration .

The ethical consideration need to
be taken into account which affects united
airlines are






regulation: United airlines need to focus on employee regulation especially
when the united airline need to get wind up and the reason for that is to show
the society about company good behavior which means that in order to gain good
reputation in the market United airline must need to pay salary on time to
their employees. The employee of united airline must need to have a safety
working conditions for example safety equipment and uniform. Manager of united
airline need to focuses on ethics so in order to be more successful and to gain
brand image worldwide Employment:
In order to be one of the most ethical companies in the world United airlines needs to focus upon its
employee. When recruiting an employee united needs the new employee to sign a
contract which includes time of a contract, wages ,working condition and hours
that the worker needs to work. Diversity:
United airline is a multinational companies that operates in many countries
worldwide so they need to ensure that worker from different cultures, religions,
age, gender need to be treated equally . Equal
opportunity: As explained earlier that united airline operate in many
countries so there must be an issue about participation in a company . United
airline need to ensure that every person in the company have an equal
opportunity to make decisions and vote. Nowadays woman feel uncomfortable when
working as an employee because society thinks that women are not able to take
decision well and they are weak in many ways so United airlines need to ensure by looking from this point of view
that they to empower woman more so they can be consider more ethical in a
market. Basic
rights : United airline need to ensure that all the workers have basic
rights ,by this it means that they are free to express their feelings for example
working longer hours then what was written in a contract (unethical ) would
give employee an intention to break these rules so United airline need to give
every employer  basic right so that they
can be more ethical in a market. 

From above
what it is written we can say From ethical consideration point of view it tell
us that United airline job is to do
to treat their employees equally and fairly by giving them equal rights and opportunities
.They need to give redundancy payments to their employees and to ensure that
safety standard are being met. Other than that the ethical consideration says
that United airline need to be more environmentally
friendly by pollution less air pollution in the environment.





can be defined as the one who gets affected by company actions or have a
interest with that company . They are two types of stakeholder internal and
external , Internal are those who have major part in the organization because they
are openly affected by the end result example of internal stake holder are team
member ,managers and Directors etc. External stakeholder on the other hand do
not play major role in the organization although they assist with administrative
process and legalities example of external stakeholder are society ,government
and supplier etc

Internal stakeholder

 They are the key stakeholder of a
business they take risk to carry out operation ,they handle various department
and organize them in such a way so that the allocation of resources should be efficient
.They also act as a contact between Directors, CEO and shareholders .Employee:
They play important huge role in operation that organization carries out.
Organizations that are successful uses their employee opinion and decision to
carry out some specific task and also being lenient towards the worker and
giving them appropriate salary would consider as ethical.Owners: They
are the one who owns most of the share in a company. Their main aim is profit
maximization. They have the main authority over the business and held
responsible for any organization impact

External stakeholder

They are those who provide goods or raw material to the business. Companies
nowadays built relationship with the supplier so they both can trust their reputation
and to increase the loyalty with each other.Government:
The government ensures that the companies pay taxes like income and custom
tax and they also held responsible for checking the ethical value of company, the
impact they do on the environment and check the condition of the company employees.Customers:
They are one of the most important aspect of external stakeholder. Customer
are the consumer of the organization, An organization won’t be able to generate
revenue without the customers. Giving customer service and satisfaction would
generate loyalty for the business

and United airlines need to operate ethical by reducing wastages and treat
their customer well ,Ensure that the best possible customer service are being
met the managers of department need to be efficient as possible so they can
coordinate well .They also need to make their employee to respect their
customer even if there is some misunderstanding between the both parties .


Ethical issues
are those issues which are related to unethical work of business for example
treating their employees badly, don’t give them appropriate salary. We can also
consider treating the customer in a wrong way by giving them bad customer
service and ensuring that the company gives right information to the customer
and do not falsely advertize a product. A business need to lookout for
appropriate supplier who don’t have any unethical practices .These are some
points of ethical issue that a company need to take a stand against it

On 19th
May 2017 the scandal of united airlines got leak in which they were operating
unethical by dragging off a passenger from his seat on a flight that turn out
it wasn’t even booked

Oscar Munoz ,CEO
of United airlines said ” I persist to be disturbed by what happened on this
flight and I extremely say sorry to the client by force removed”

In 2009 David
Carroll aka a famous musician whose guitar was broken by United baggage handler
and he claim about this issue but the company doesn’t care about his opinion
even the customer service department doesn’t care about its guitar so after so
many calls the company said to David that his guitar won’t be compensated even
though they broke it. In a year or two David Carroll published a song against
the United Airline about his broken guitar which lead to worldwide boycott of
the United airlines and dropping huge revenue.

From my
research about United airlines we can conclude that they provide worst customer
service for their passenger and nowadays it is considered as one of the worst
airline of America. As explained above we can see the 2 scandal which got leak
and the passenger boycott this airline which resulted in huge drop of sales and
now there is tough competition in the market because of the unethical work by
the United airlines and when it comes to the employee of United airlines we can
say they are is no safe working condition and no sense of security and
participation in the company


To improve
ethics of United airline while meeting objectives and ensuring good employee
relationship there are some certain task that the company need to do which are


















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