Supervision theory and practice start on rising as quickly
as experts taking place to coach other experts. Some academic models have
developed to explain and support professional supervision. Good skill as a manager
does not mean they have good ability for  supervisor, and when supervisee/supervisor are
disagree, conflicts may occur.

The new models of supervision have incorporated
theories from psychology and other disciplines, for one-to-one or group
supervision. The supervision develops into more purposeful and different type
of models appears, like developmental models, integrated models, and agency

1. Understand
the purpose of supervision

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    In the Health and social care sector supervision
is the procedure where a care worker can speak to someone who is trained to recognise
any emotional or behavioural changes in the worker that could be due to a failure
to manage issues with one or more service users. The supervisor is also
responsible for introducing new practices and procedures, developing and
refining various techniques to address the everyday jobs involved, and
informing customers of alternative methods and / or new practices as well as
internal changes. The supportive and educational
supervision process is expected to assist carers in applying the theory and
techniques of personal approach of care and keep good practise. The supervisor
is responsible for monitoring the work of their supervisee, in roll to safeguard
the individuals from bad practise. A supervisor has to observe for symptoms of
bad practise in the care workers.

Supervision is an understanding that the care
workers have to discuss about their work on a regular basis with the named supervisor.
The duty is to work together to guarantee the well being of the individuals
receiving their care.

The supervisor’s main responsibility is to guarantee
that their clients are receiving the needed and bets care. By ensuring the care
staffs constantly develop their knowledge and good practice in all areas. The
supervisor is responsible for detecting any symptoms of bad practise in the
care staff.


The supervision has to follow these stages:

-Evaluation by: assessment of the care staff; developing
system of self-review; quality assurance; best practice; result of the provide
care (appreciation and complaints); recognize the risk for staff and clients; referrals; follow up on client progress and well
being; helps a caregiver to look at their strength and weakness.

-Education by: setting achievable development goals; providing courses and trainings;
leading as model; explains the logic of recommended intervention and inverse; skills
progress; explanation significant actions in the rehabilitation; changing the
way of thinking; top up acquaintance and knowledge; facilitate team links; responsibility
of care and good practice .

-Administration by: procedures and guidance; rules
and regulations; documents; contacts with professionals; task scheduling; documentation
maintenance; insurance.

-Support by: supporter; advocacy; dispute the
problem; deal with the goals; enabling; validation; accessibility; enhancing
the rights; self support.


            Structure patterns in organising of supervision define several types of supervision.

-Agency Model of Supervision -Kadushin (1976) describes a supervisor as
someone “to whom authority is delegated to direct, coordinate, enhance,
and evaluate on-the-job performance of the supervisees for whose work he/she is
held accountable. In implementing this responsibility, the supervisor performs
administrative, educational, and supportive functions in interaction with the
supervisee in the context of a positive relationship”.

In supervising Kadushin’s main idea, the worker
knows how to do his job well and to be responsible for the work done and to expand
his/ her skills during education and advice. The aim is to raise awareness and
improve levels of qualification by encouraging reflection and research work.

Focusing on the activity rather than on the worker,
it allows supervisors to listen to constructive criticism instead of feeling
compelled to defend themselves from a personal attack.

This model has quite a few strength and flexibility,
and open to examination and testing. It is also demanding equally for the
supervisor and supervisee. This style can be customized to meet many requirements.
This model may be unacceptable when the supervisor has little experience and cannot
provide appropriate guidance and support.

Models of Supervision – In Erskine the supervisory development model, the main
idea is that workers and managers are constantly developing and mature; like
all the individuals we grow and  progress,
and this progression go through stages and phase that are expected. Generally,
supervisory development models describe the gradual stages of the development
of worker from new to expert; every stage consists of distinct features and

Erskine (1982) identifies
three stages in the improvement of the individual’s skills, they represent
particular kind of knowledge and meets exact learning requirements.In the early stage of education, workers have effective needs as they
develop specialized skills, a solid academic structure for suggestions and
mediation techniques. They also have emotional needs: to believe in their role and to be confident in their talent to do the job and
to feel sufficient to act in this new venture.

For the middle period of education, Erskine suggests
that workers have to step up in their personal approach, to learn how to set
direction and systematise a goal plans.  On an individual point, their aim is to
understand themselves and to prevent any emotions and to solve any personal
problems that could create barriers to their connections with clients. According to Erskine, in this second phase the
individual development of learners is supreme importance.

During the final stage of training, workers need to
study different approaches and implement of the theoretical frames, to recognise
different interference and to learn how to use some of them and how to increase
flexibility. Trainees should also practice self-management and learn to
distinguish between behavioural observations and observation theory.

For this model, it is essential to adapt the connection
with the supervisee’s needs based on their present developmental stage. Supervisors using the Supervisory Development Approach should be able to
correctly recognize the present period of the development of supervisee and
give feedback and to maintain proper for this stage assistance.

However of the model used the supervision should use a number of general
basic principles. Supervisors are in charge of the professional development of the supervised. These duties include matters
like informed consent, privacy, and double relations. Dealing with ethical and legal issues is essential for supervision. The
balance between supervisory relations and therapeutic relationships is crucial.
Imbalance can lead to dual relationships. Supervisory relationships can become intimate
relationships between the supervisor and supervisee, in this situation the supervision
will be no effective and supervision should stop.

Professional supervision is a
type of development. The supervision may contain and to be used in
connection with other forms of professional development such as review,
mentoring, counseling and training as well as for improvement and compliment.Professional
supervision aims to: accelerate the professional development and
strengthening the competence and knowledge of the care worker; to progress the standards and ensuring
the best and safest practice. The aim also
is  to accelerate the resolution of disputes and
improve the quality of work of individuals and the team .

            Profit of Professional Supervision

For the Supervisee: increases trust,
competence and efficiency; it focuses on the needs of people’s professional development; creates part of
continuing training and development; it make possible the incorporation of
theory and practice; expands the access to new skills; increases usage of 
good  and  best practices; enhancement  self-satisfaction; reduce stress at work; raises the knowledge of their position; helps workers
 to use the best of their own knowledge’s
and  skills ; it can be a essential form
of support

For the clients: develop high service quality;  increase customer wellbeing; enlarge the ethical,
professional and practical standards; reduces the risk of bad practices

For the supervisor : increase the level of professional development of the
workers and the team; improves the quality of work provide by members; increases confidence in the profession; reduces the possibility of
complaints from the service users; increases the safety and the use of best
practices ; improved customer satisfaction; supports the implementation of organizational
standards and goals.


 2. Principles of supervision can be used to
inform performance management

 The efficiency of Performance Management Cycle
plays an important role in the application of motivation in the workplace. The five
stages in the cycle are: Plan, Manage, Review, Reward and Renew.

 Stage 1 -Planning: The first stage of the
performance management cycle is to plan, this include connecting with an
employee and assessing ability and responsibilities for a certain period of
time. In this stage of the planning process have to consider the workers
present position and performance; this will set the first plan of development
and realistic goals

Stage 2 -Manage:
enforcement of the plan and management of the implementation are the second
stage of the cycle. This can provide employee with support at any time and
ensure that good practice and tools are in place to increase performance

Stage 3 –
Review: By ensuring compliance set in the first-phase efficiency framework,
this may be mainly helpful if there is any obstruction to implementation that
might have a negative consequence .Talking to the care in the middle of the
cycle is an excellent chance to change the goals depending on other factors.

Stage 4 –
Reward: If all
goals are met, at this stage of the cycle is the time to evaluate and reward
employees. The reasons and types of compensation will be discussed in a first
phase when the goals are set.

Stage 5 –
Renew: The final stage of the performance management cycle is renewing. This
may include analysing past goals and searching for ways how to improve the
performance and how to make better plans. Remuneration methods can range from
options for annual bonuses or shares.

 The ultimate goal of management is to get
better quality of finished tasks so the carers can fulfil the
requirements that service users have. Patient centred care means that the staff
will need ongoing training and guidance in completing the individuals care and
the supervisions is main part
of this care improvement. The helpful
response to the problems
is essential for successful supervision, mostly when is establish on actual monitoring and comments are from service users. This recommendation
can motivate the staff to carry on with self developing. As well will recognise complicates in advance, like overwork or short of staff, low
knowledges and low motivation and bad
practices.The supervision can  be informative for everyday problems and the
wellbeing of services users and
staff. It is have potential
to find new developing ideas.


How to support individuals through professional supervision

supervision of social care provides resources for yearly appraisal. The Handbook
(People Performance Management Toolkit Skills for Care) is a free
toolkit for NHS employers and it is to help with the supervision and managing
people’s work. The set of tools aims to give managers and supervisors assurance
how to tackle difficulties in the management and how to deal with inefficient
performance of variety of tasks, and fair disciplinary and firing processes. Effective
supervision tools of social care include guidance and templates for: Supervision
policy; Supervision agreement; Model of supervision program; Example of a supervision


professional supervision is a good solution for organization managing that
helps to achieve results and can provide : better  stimulus to the workers; considerate how links
work`s in common goals; well-organized time management; capability to plan the team
work; competent work coordination; improved communication; limiting conflicts
and misunderstandings; Training on work; Reducing stress at work.

supervision and team management include: Providing sufficient time for
teamwork, providing time for team meetings, successful team leadership.

Individual and group supervision are an significant
part of the manager’s and supervisor’s work. Managing practice uses supervison to identify the best resources and use them for the entire team.This means that the
supervisor needs to know what the staff action is and how they do their work.
He/she will be capable to provide reliable and reasonable advice to the team.
Supervision is often considered to be “one to one”, but many of the values
and objectives of individual supervision can apply to team supervision. When supervise
a team is very useful to know all the team development techniques and have
right skills.

aggregation between the two is probably one of the most important goals: group
supervision is expected to focus more on the well-being of people and workers,
assessing the individual skills, solutions and approaches used to work in the

supporting and guiding the performance of the team, we can use all three
approaches: Individual supervision, Group supervision and Team development, and
a mixture of all three will most likely to be more successful.

The supervisor
must mediate where there is a risk to customers and make sure that principles, procedure
and professional values are respected.

responsibility of supervising is to train and guide workers – how to make
improvements, how to use new training methods, how to retain their commitment,
how to maintain a high level of work, and to advise in the event of an urgent

Supervision also, have to allow advisers to develope new professional and
personal knowledge through their own experience.


How professional supervision supports performance


 The main function of supervision is to consider
workers’ awareness and accomplishment, alongside the assignments,
standards and polices of the organisation in order to progress the presentation
of the workers. This incorporates further training, guidance and consultation when
needed to help carers to identify and complete their job and profession goals
and connect with the team in their development. Supervision is an encouraging
and competent procedure that has the potential to bring together an employee
and a qualified supervisor together to discus good practice. And it is a method
for worker to reconsider and estimate their efforts from conversation,
reporting and surveillance by another worker. Supervisions goal is to discover problems
and to deal with them, to deliver best interests care, and improve the outcome
from occupational and clinical issues. Supervision is a method by which a
worker is assigned to work with a colleague to achieve positive outcomes. These tasks are
competent, responsible for implementation, professional development and
personal support. The purpose of supervision is to get better work practice, to
progress the offered service, to improve communication, to develop the
potential of each staff member, to improve the competence of each individual
employee and throughout the business.

professional supervision, we can focus on managing obstacles. Focus on our
responsibility for the professional development of each staff member. Emphasize
the importance of the contribution of each staff member and facilitate the
recognition of skills and competence differences. This way we can increase
morality and trust, to encourage the desire for growth and development, to support good ideas
and practices.By reducing
negative practices, the results and consequences of these negatives will be
redirected towards the development of a higher self-esteem, autonomy and
self-help of staff to achieve their personal professional duties. As well as
encouraging lifelong learning to raise awareness in evidence-based practice is
how we promote a good work environment where employees feel supported in their
roles to monitor and support progress on pre-agreed policies and procedures.






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Association (2009). Professional Supervision. Accessed 2nd February 2010.

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Bradley, L.J., & Ladany, N.
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Erskine, R. G. (1982).
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Falender, C. A., &
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Haynes, R., Corey, G., &
Moulton, P. (2003). Clinical supervision in the helping professions: A
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Tsui, Ming-Sum (2005). Social
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