Stem cell research has really impacted our lives and expanded our knowledge about the human body, even though there is still more to discover. The human body is a large puzzle that we are learning about every day and Stem cells are part of that puzzle that humans have discovered to help encourage the healthy functions of the body. Stem cells have improved our knowledge about the human body and they are used for research to help find treatments for different diseases such as blood diseases like leukemia; a type of cancer that affects the bone marrow. There are three different types of stem cells which are used by scientists for medical treatment and research and they are Adult stem cells(Tissue-Specific), Embryonic Cells(Pluripotent), and Induced Pluripotent, which are just regular cells that scientists take and change to make them behave like Embryonic cells. Stem cells are the main focus for research on medical treatments and will continue to outgrow any arguments against it because of its benefits and new research.     Stem cells are different from any other type of cell in the human body, they have the ability to renew themselves and divide over time to create new cells which can either choose to stay as a stem cell or change into a more specialized cell also known as differentiating.Some organs in the body suffer injuries which can damage cells, an example is the gut (gastrointestinal tract), this organ is both the small and large intestine system.Every 4 days the internal walls(villi) are replaced with a new lining and also repairs the damaged tissue or replace the worn out tissues in that system. In other organs such as the pancreas and the heart, the cells would only able to divide under special conditions in those areas, but they still work in the same way to repair worn out tissues. Adult stem cells are tissue-specific or multipotent meaning they can change into some of the cells in the body but not any cells, but these cells are rare in the human body making it hard for scientists to collect. They do not persist as long as Embryonic cells.      Embryonic cells are obtained from embryos when they are 5 days old having about 150 cells, during this stage, the embryo is known as a blastocyst and isn’t visible to the naked eye. A blastocyst is a hollow sphere that consists of an inner and outer cell mass. The outer cell mass(trophoblast)would attach and become part of the placenta and then separate from the inner cell mass,(embryoblast) which is a group of cells that will divide over time and become all the structures of an adult organism. If the blastocyst were to continue until it attaches to the mother’s uterus then it would be considered a fetus, but when the blastocyst is extracted the inner cell mass is taken and placed into a culture dish that contains a broth that lacking the necessary stimulation to differentiate and divide to become any cell type in the human body. Embryonic cells are used for In Vitro  Fertilization(IVF), which is a process of fertilization when an egg is combined with a sperm outside the body on a laboratory dish. This treatment is used for women with fertility problems and is a long process which could either be successful or fail. The study of embryonic cells started with scientists using mice as a way to learn more about those cells. The amount of research that where done on the mice has helped us find many ways to use stem cells to find treatments for different types of injuries or diseases in the human body.      Cells are used as a source of research to discover new medical treatment for illnesses like Parkinson’s diseases and Leukemia. Leukemia is cancer that affects the bone marrow and is rarely curable, but can be treated with stem cell therapy, through a bone marrow transplant.The transplant is done to replace the damaged bone marrow with Stem cells. The bone marrow gets damaged because cancerous cells grow in the bone marrow, not giving any room for the healthy stem cells to form new blood cells for the body. Unlike Leukemia the Parkinson’s disease is very different because it affects the way you walk because of a problem with a certain nerve cell (Dopamine) and is an incurable disease, but there are treatments to help calm down the symptoms, but not to help slow it down. Scientists recently found out that you make dopamine cells out of embryonic cells and then transplant them to the brain to replace the damaged cells in the brain. “A breakthrough study in Lund University shows there is a possibility for embryonic cells to produce Dopamine cells that act the like normal dopamine cells once transplanted into the mice’s brains”. Although the study still continues to find the cure for the Parkinson’s disease and leukemia, there are treatments that help with the symptoms along with clinical trials to find new treatments. 

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