Statement: The growing knowledge of science and mathematics allowed for architects to create more structurally sound buildings — which permitted for more extravagant ornamentation and elaborate embellishment that became a known staple of the architecture found in the Baroque era. Example: Sir Isaac Newton’s work in developing a new form of math known as differential calculus resulted in the discovery of the parabola shape formed when the equation y = x2 is graphed. The parabola was adapted as a very strong structure in architecture and used frequently throughout this era to support buildings, most notably churches, which previously had to be built square and robust to support their own weight. The strength found in this new arch shape allowed for more open floor plans, leading to the experimentation with light and shadow effects and ostentatious embellishment found in Baroque-era buildings. These arches are found in buildings such as the ballroom in the Palace of Versailles  and St. Peter’s Basilica. Statement: The development of theatre architecture and stage machinery throughout the 16th and 17th century allowed dramatists and playwrights to have more freedom experimenting with multimedia presentations of spectacle, backdrop changes, lighting and illusion to supernatural elements in their productions. Example: Giacomo Torelli, an Italian stage engineer and designer, developed the Pole and Chariot system of stage machinery for 16th century theatre. It is a system of sub-stage trolley wheels attached to ropes and a central drum that allowed stage flats to be changed by a single assistant rather than a crew of as many as sixteen stage-hands. Its popularity was not only in its efficiency but also in how it allowed for playwrights to write in more rapid scenic changes. Following his innovation, theatrical works increased significantly in set changes and paved the way for more fluid, rapid ease in said changes. This allowed for more fast-paced and quick-witted comedic dramatists who relied heavily on backdrop changes.Torelli also integrated one-point-perspective to draw the audience’s eye to the stage’s horizon, giving the illusion that the stage-world extends beyond the theatre set. This, alongside his work designing sets closed spaces, allowed for interchange between interior and exterior settings in the works, and created greater visual depth in theatrical productions. The proscenium arch in Baroque-era theatres served not only to conceal larger stage machinery from the audience, but also to.Statement: The religious movement of Protestant Christianty against the Roman Catholic Church and following feuds had great influence in the composition and subject matter of artwork in the Baroque era.Example: The Protestant Reformation in Europe during the mid-late 16th century instigated iconoclasm, the rejection of religious imagery as a heretical practice. The movement sought to demolish the existing Roman Catholic tradition in art, especially with sculptures and public paintings like frescoes. Consequently, artists in Protestant countries, most prominently Northern Europe, began to develop into more secular varieties of art, including landscape paintings, portrait paintings and still life. The Catholic Counter-Reformation in the late 17th century in turn promoted religious and Biblical depictions that glorified God, holy splendor and Catholic tradition, and highlighted the differences between Catholicism and Protestantism by focusing on the roles of Virgin Mary and the Saints. Artists such as Peter Paul Rubens were commissioned in the Counter-Reformation to fill the churches with new artwork (primarily large-scale oil paintings and frescoes) when formerly Protestant regions (such as Spanish Netherlands, now modern Belgium — though examples are also found in colonies such as Flanders and Naples) were reclaimed under Roman Catholic rule. Some of these works include Descent from the Cross (1612-14), The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus (1618) and Judgement of Paris (1632-5). Statement: Corelli’s work as a teacher, violinist and composer was influential many of his contemporaries and the succeeding generation of composers and musicians.Example: His work Twelve concerti grossi, Op. 6 popularised the form and became known as the first pre-eminent example of concerti grossi. Many historians consider that Bach, Vivaldi and others would not have been able to write their own without Corelli’s first example. Moreover, Corelli was active as a teacher of violin style and his teachings and development of violin technique were continued through his pupils including Francesco Geminiani, Pietrio Antonio Locatelli, and possibly the most famous of the three, Antonio Vivaldi, who was considered Corelli’s successor in violin technique and composer of the concerti grossi. Geminiani held Corelli’s compositions in high respects, even arranging the six trio sonatas from Corelli’s Opp. 1 and 3 and his Op. 5 into concerti grossi form between 1720-1730. Corelli’s style found wide influence — one notable example being Corelli’s pupil John Ravenscroft, who was a English violinist strongly influenced by his works. The famous misattribution was made by the Amsterdam printer La Cene, who found John Ravenscroft’s Opus 1 and mistakenly reprinted them as “Corelli’s Op. 7” some forty years after its composition date as they were so similar to their models. Geminiani arranged six trio sonatas from Corelli’s Opp. 1 and 3 and all twelve of the Op. 5 solo sonatas as concerti grossi in the 1720s and ’30s. Unabashed imitators of Corelli’s style were abundant, perhaps the most famous being his pupil John Ravenscroft, who published a set of trios at Rome in 1695 so like their models that they were reprinted by Le Cene as “Corelli’s Op. 7” some forty years later.Johann Sebastian Bach, another one of Corelli’s contemporaries, composed a piece titled Fugue in B minor on a theme by Corelli that utilised a theme taken from Corelli’s Sonate da Chiesa op. 3 no. 4 (printed in 1689). The theme, while developed by Corelli as vivacious and quick-paced (Allegro), is slowed considerably and altered to have more delibrate, melancholy qualities in Bach’s organ piece. The political proceedings often reflected the creator’s Example:  It the popularity of the ballad opera. Its content mocked the corruption of incumbent Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole and his government. Gay’s sequel, Polly, was even more politically charged than the first, and was banned by 

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