Social choice beyond the reach of the original

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Social media
is also known or classified as new media which frequently used by the people
worldwide to communicate or doing anything about communication field. The
uncontrolled usage of social media will give a bad impact on the user and
society, but if it was using wisely any bad things can be avoided. Social media
gives pros and cons to the user. They are the users that play an important role
in forming a healthy lifestyle for social media users in future.

Twitter as a micro blogging service has
emerged as a new medium in spotlight through recent happenings, such as Arab
Spring in Arab World and Boston terrorist attack. Twitter users follow others
or are followed not like on most online social networking sites, such as
Facebook, the relationship of following and being followed requires no
interchange of information. A user can follow any other user, and the user
being followed need not follow back. (Kwak, Lee, Park,
Moon, 2010)

Kwak also mentioned that once you
followed another twitter user, you can see and react for anything that they
wrote and share. The users are free to express their feeling and what they
think.  They can share another’s user
tweet by using Re-Tweet button. They also can quote the tweet to give their
opinion or feedback to the tweet quoted. The retweet mechanism empowers users
to spread information of their choice beyond the reach of the original tweet’s
followers. (Kwak, Lee, Park,  Moon, 2010)

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Twitter was micro-blogging software that
allowing the users to publish the message known as tweet to the other users.
The user may spread the messages just by re-tweeting it. Twitter allows the
extension of information to large people worldwide just by using the smart
phone or web-based services. (Mendoza, Poblete and Castillo, 2010)

The statistic of social media usage worldwide in March 2015 shows there
are about 17 Million citizen of Malaysia was an active social media users. Most
90% of them are active mobile social users which rapidly increased 14% from
2014. (Kemp, 2015)

The statistic also reveal that people in Malaysia spent about 5 hours
and 4 minutes on the internet via tablet or pc while average for daily use of
the internet via and mobile phone which is mobile internet users was 3 hours
and 39 minutes. Meanwhile, 3 hours and 27 minutes spent on social media via any
device. (Kemp, 2015)

new revolution of micro blogging world allows everyone to essentially create
their own newspaper or newscast with the easy procedure. Most of the news
agencies worldwide use Twitter as a medium to provide latest information and
news because it is easy and fast.

In today’s world,
social media play a big role in our life. Not just for reaching a lost contact
friend and searching for information, we also tend to have all access regarding
the internet, reading news and get information about other country just by
clicking on their smart phone. People and smart phone are inseparable, smart
phone also can act as a weapon to spread information that are happening in
daily life but are not fast enough to be update by the television as it only
can be shown during the news time.

Viral message
become trending as message is being shared person to person in social media.
Sometimes viral message are good as it raise awareness among people that are
being reached but when a false message being viral it raise the fear among
people especially if it involved death. People should be caution when spreading
information on serious thing such as flood that happens every year.

Prime Minister
of Malaysia, Datuk Seri Najib Abdul Razak said the people must stick to the
news sources which provide the truthful information for the citizen. Plus, the
irresponsibility of spread the false news could cause concern and worry amongst
people. (BERNAMA 29 December 2014)

media are increasingly used in political context recently by the citizens and
political institutions such as politicians, political parties, political
foundation and think tanks. (Stieglitz and Dang, 2012)

is important to actively participate in the political communication based on
the use of social media mostly during election campaign. Social media was a
suitable medium for a discussion and political participation among the users to
spread the political opinion.

In Malaysia, the opposition parties use the
Twitter as a medium to spread their propaganda and agenda. Most of the social
media user use Twitter because it was easy to access and provide variety of
information. Political messages used to be controlled by a handful of powerful
gatekeepers as the messengers and also the messages are more diffuse and
diverse, today.

As conclusion, social media likes Twitter
will provide pros and cons to the users. The users should always aware what the
consequences of their misusage of Twitter whether it can help them or harm
their life. The false news and sensationalism was example of the misusage of
Twitter that might give the bad impact to the users. The false news and
sensationalism will kill the truth and will be spread worldwide and harm the
name of individual, company or organization and also the name of country.













1.2  Problem Statement

The increase of social media users open to any possibilities for the
increase of spammer and faker who involve in the spread of false and fake
information. The social media users might be in risk when they are using their
social media. Any negative impact will affect them such as the social media
account being hacked and the privacy matter might be spread to public.

            Fake news also classified as a story which
does not has a factual basis but presented as news. It is easily abused by
those who want to control on press freedom since a free press offer be the best
defense against fake news. The spread of fake news was not by the journalist
but usually from the individual who see a social media are the medium to them
to share and connect their news stories. (News Media Association (2017)

Sensational can define as a thing that
developed a negative implication for a few decades after the rise of Penny
Press. Samuel Johnso’s Dictionary (1755) the term of sensational carried no
negative implications. It was defined as perception by means of the sense. (Grabe,
Zhou and Barnett (2011)

Total of cyber
safety incident reported by Malaysia Cyber Security on 2014 has increased by
12% which is 11,918 and on 2013 with 10,636 cases. There are few cases
involving spreading of messages and fake news in social media throughout the
previous year. Those who involved in spreading fake news will be charged under
Seksyen 233(1) (a) Communication and Multimedia Act 1998 and punishment not
exceed RM50,000 or imprisoned not more than 1 year, or both. (Malaysia Cyber
Security (2014))

Meanwhile, Malaysian
Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC) investigate 167 Internet and
social media abuse cases between last year and Feb 1 this year. MCMC also
reporting that the case under investigation under the Communications and
Multimedia Act 1998 involved spreading false content and information through WhatsApp,
Facebook and Twitter. (BERNAMA (2017))

problem face now is the false information that tends to influences another
users to believe on that false news without do a research first. The increase
of misusage of social media for the spread of false and fake news cases need to
be prevent and cure effectively.

impact of false news and sensationalism on Twitter might tend to change the
perception of the user. They might accept the information provide blindly
without do any fact checking. They also might to share that information to
other users and this situation might lead to misleading.

this research will reveal the impact of false news and sensationalism on
Twitter towards the Twitter user. The researcher also wants to know the factor
of the spreading of false news and sensationalism on Twitter. The more factors
revealed, the more solutions will gain to reduce the impact of false news and
sensationalism on Twitter. Uses and Gratifications TheoryUses and Gratifications Theory is an approach
to understanding why and how people actively seek out specific media to satisfy
specific need (Severin, Werner; Tankard, James
(1997). A uses and gratifications approach to the study of communication
was first formally outlined by Katz (Katz, 1959). Katz wanted to change the typical things that
everyone do which instead asking what the media do to people, we ask what
people do with the media. In the early 1940s, plenty of studies examined the
mode on how people make use the different media platforms such as classical
radio music, radio soap operas and daily newspapers (O’Donohoe, 1994).According to Katz, there are four guidelines
for uses and gratifications to occur: First, the audience should be active in
using any mass media for what they already aimed. Second, the media users
choose the media platform that they believe will make them gaining
satisfaction. Third, the media compete with other media to perform satisfaction
for users.Finally, the gratifications that happened from
the media bring diversion, entertainment, and information to the audience
(Katz, Gurevitch, & Haas, 1973). Even though, Katz applied the uses and
gratifications theory to the traditional media outlets such as radio and TV,
the theory can be applied to more recent media such as social media (Twitter
and Facebook). The motives behind the impact of false news and gratifications
of sensationalism depend on the personality of the individual and also on the
self-esteem levels of the individuals.            Twitter is a
medium to the users to communicate each other. The false news and
sensationalism come from the users who unable to carry the responsibility to
provide an accurate and clear information the others. This gratification and uses
theory was suitable to use in this research because the researchers want to
reveal and know the impact and factor of false news and sensationalism that
practiced among the Twitter users. The researcher wants to know what the users
intention when spread the false news and sensationalism to other users and what
the users perception when read the false news and sensationalism on writing in
Twitter. The researcher also wants to know whether the
spreader of false news and sensationalism felt satisfy when doing that
unethical things and also whether they know the impact of their wrongdoing
towards the society of Twitter. Quantitative
research has certain advantages. One is that the use of numbers allows greater
precision in reporting results. For example, the Violence Index (Gerbner,
Gross, Morgan & Signorielli, 1980), a quantitative measuring device, makes
it possible to report the exact increase or decrease in violence from one television
season to another, where qualitative research could report only whether there
was more or less violence. To support the argument, researcher
used quantitative method because it could state the research problem in very
specific and set terms (Frankfort-Nachmias & Nachmias, 1992).

O’NEILL R in his online website stated that quantitative
methods allow for a broader study, involving a greater number of subjects, and
enhancing the generalization of the results. It also can allow for greater
objectivity and accuracy of results. Generally, quantitative methods are
designed to provide summaries of data that support generalizations about the
phenomenon under study. In order to accomplish this, quantitative research
usually involves few variables and many cases, and employs prescribed
procedures to ensure validity and reliability. Meanwhile, the usage of
standards means that the research can be replicated, and then analyzed and
compared with similar studies. Kruger (2003) confirms that ‘quantitative
methods allow us to summarize vast sources of information and facilitate
comparisons across categories and over time’. Personal bias also can be avoided
by researchers keeping a ‘distance’ from participating subjects and employing
subjects unknown to them

For this quantitative approach, the researcher wills face-to-face survey
which focused on 60 students of UiTM, who use Twitter to know the impact of
false news towards them.


3.2 Population and Sample

is a group or class of subjects, variables, concepts, or phenomena. Sample is a
subset of the population that is representative of the entire population
(Wimmer & Dominick, 2014). The target population for this research were
UiTM Shah Alam students.

a sample is a subset of the
population that is representative of the entire population (Wimmer &
Dominick, 2014) or in other words, sample is a targeted group inside a
population.  The sample for this research
is Twitter users among UiTM Shah Alam students.

3. 3
Sampling Techniques

sampling method used in this study is the non-probability sampling method which
is purposive sampling. According to Bernard (2002), Lewis & Shepphard
(2006), the purposive
sampling technique, also called judgment sampling, is the deliberate choice of
an informant due to the qualities the informant possesses. It is a nonrandom
technique that does not need underlying theories or a set number of informants.
Simply put, the researcher decides what needs to be known and sets out to find
people who can and are willing to provide the information by virtue of
knowledge or experience (Tongco, 2007).

researcher’s target population for this research is the social media users of

to Krejcie and Morgan table, if the population is 1 million, the sample must be
384. Therefore, the sample size of representatives for this study is 384.
However, in this study, the researcher does not have intention to generalize
the result. So therefore, the researcher will use purposive sampling and will
distribute questionnaires to 60 selected users who active in the Twitter usage.


Instrument for Data Collection

A questionnaire was chosen as data collection
instrument for this research. According to Webster (1828), questionnaire is a
set of questions for obtaining statistically useful or personal information
from individuals. The survey questions are asked what the user perception of
false news and sensationalism on Twitter.

Other questions include the other factors contribute to sensationalism
and false news on Twitter as perceived by Twitter users. The
questionnaires also consisted of section A and B. Section A aimed at gaining
demographic data such as age, level of education, and gender. Section B will
the research objectives and questions.

Each response will coded to determine the most
common reasons behind what the perception of the Twitter users towards the
false news and sensationalism on Twitter and also what the other factors that
contributes to sensationalism and false news on Twitter.


3.5 Data Analysis

3.5.1 Descriptive Analysis

After the data was collected, researcher will
organize and analyze the coded data. For analysis of closed-ended questions, a
computer program called Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was
used. Data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics.

Frequency tables were drawn and the data was
presented in pie diagrams and bar graphs. The open-ended questions were
analyzed through quantitative content analysis by the researcher with the aim
of quantifying emerging characteristics and concepts.  


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