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Since the outset of the 19 th century, low temperature fluids are being brought into use in order to solidify thesoils for temporary support to the ground or for providing groundwater control. Cryogenic Drilling has beenincorporated as a young technique in order to provide borehole stability and to prevent cross- contaminationduring drilling. Cryogenic Drilling replaces ambient air by cold nitrogen as the circulating medium, thusimproving upon the conventional air rotary drilling. The borehole wall gets frozen under the action of the coldnitrogen at temperatures about -320?F and hence, the wall gets rigid and stabilises.The method of cryogenic drilling has many advantages. Some of these include the promoted construction of asmall borehole due to absence of casing for providing support. Also due to the inertness of nitrogen, it is aneconomically viable process. It helps us to drill at locations that have not been accessed previously. Also thisprocess can be incorporated with minimal equipment modification to the present drill rigs. Cryogenic drillingproves to be beneficial at sites with deep water tables by building frozen walls and thus, not allowing thecontaminants to move along the hole.Some of the pre-requisite conditions involve a minimum presence of 2 percent moisture content in the soilformations in which the process is to be done. This is useful in places where the formations involve thepresence of gravel and unconsolidated sands. The process deems to be more effective in regions withalternating hard and soft layer formations such as sandy zones comprising of layers of boulders and cobbles.Environmental investigations being conducted by employing conventional drilling techniques for areascomprising of unconsolidated soils can result into the collapsing of borehole and also end up cross-contaminating the aquifers and the formations of the soil. Future development may promote Horizontaldrilling in absence of the drilling mud. This could help drilling slant wells in regions of highly unstable sands.Continuous endeavours are being made in order to perfect the cryogenic process and the equipment. Manyprivate corporations are interested in bringing about a change in their techniques by implementing thecryogenic drilling method through further testing and analysis.

Categories: Construction


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