theory (Deci & Ryan, 1995): Self-esteem could
be traced from self-determination theory (SDT) which was developed by Edward L.
Deci and Richard M. Ryan in 1995. The theory states that people have an
intrinsic motivation to explore, absorb and master his surroundings and that is
true high self-esteem. Deci and Ryan believed motivation is of two types:
Autonomous and Controlled. Autonomous motivation focuses on intrinsic
motivation in which individuals integrate the value of an activity into their
self. Whereas controlled motivation includes external as well as introjected
In self-determination theory (Ryan
& Deci, 2000), distinguish between two different types of self-esteem, each
built on different grounds and each motivates differ kinds of behaviors.
Contingent self-esteem is a sense of worth that is based on the introjections
of externally defined standards. Non contingent self-esteem, in contrast refers
to a person for whom the issue self-esteem is not noticeable, largely because
they experience themselves on a fundamental level as worthy of esteem and love.
Successes and failures do not implicate their self-worth, even when they lead
to a reevaluation of actions and efforts.
Morris Rosenberg’s (1965) Society
and the Adolescent Self-image opened a new door to psychologists and helped
bridge a disciplinary gap with his self-esteem theory and his Rosenberg Self
Esteem Scale. Rosenberg’s self-esteem theory relies on two factors: (1)
Reflected appraisals and (2) Social comparisons. Regarding reflected
appraisals, Rosenberg acknowledges that Human communication depends on seeing
matters from other people’s perspectives. Thus we become more aware bout
ourselves. Social comparisons emphasizes that self-esteem is “in part a
consequence of individuals comparing themselves with others and making Positive
or negative self-evaluations” (Hughes and Demo).
of previous studies:
Rosli., Othman., et.al., (2011) conducted a cross sectional study to
investigate the relationship between self-esteem and academic performance among
the second year undergraduates of faculty of health sciences and faculty of
medicine. The domains included in the
study were self-esteem, stress and body image. The sample size of the study was
220 out of which 110 were males. The scales used for the study were Rosenberg
Self Esteem Scale(RSES), Perceived stress Scale(PSS) and Body Area Satisfaction
Scale(BASS). Pearson’s correlation was used for analysis of the data. Findings
indicate that those who have high self-esteem perform better in academics. Self-esteem
score and body area satisfaction was significant at (p<.5 self-esteem and stress is inversely significant. the study concluded that a key factor in affecting individual academic performance than other contributing factors including body image. research conducted investigated relationship between achievement among pre university students. it also aimed to gender differences students qaemshahr schools. findings indicate there significant positive self-esteem. indicated difference males females. but no was fond suggest high predictor of andrew kyprianou anna explored previous accomplishments self-efficacy postgraduate sample size measures were completed by participants. average grade each student used as measure. results showed multiple regressions show mediated performance. give support predictive effectiveness settings. doodman intended school male female lamerd city. copper smith questionnaire instrument semester gpa score their achievement. pearson correlation coefficient for analysis data. higher better low weaker susceptibility competence with mohammed arshad. zaidi. khalid examined purposive sampling technique data collection from faisalabad. instruments rosenberg scale. grades examination assessing .pearson analysis. found on which females had scores compared have comprehensive literature across varied educational backgrounds. however limited studies identified studying india. few focused based all these limitations important how self esteem affect>