Section from Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, Japan,
Section 1: Goal, Scope and RationaleThree Gorges Dam (TGD) Project was built in 1994 (Quanfa and Zhiping, December 2011) and has been nominated as the largest dam in human history. It was formally started after National People’s Congress recognized the proposal to built it in 1992 (Peter, n.d). It was built to generate more energy power to cater with China’s economy demand that is growing rapidly and at the same time to control the floods at that province and also for a better navigation of the river.This project was estimated to cost about $25 billion (internationalrivers.org, n.d) and was funded by the bank in China itself and also by the export credit agencies from Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden and Switzerland. TGD is a large dam at wbich 1084 km2 of the area is covered with water. The dam can reserve about 39.3 billion m3 of water at one time for which 22.1 billion m3 of it can accumulate water from an unexpected flood events. This large capacity of dam hence can mitigate the flood risk. By having 34 power sets (The Three Gorges Dam, March 2015), The Three Gorges Dam can generate energy for 18200 MW (internationalrivers.org, n.d) which is sufficient to give enough power to 18.2 million homes at that time. The reservoir is completed in few stages where during the first stage, in June 2003, it was occupied with water up to 135 meters above sea level which is a year earlier than expected. The construction was expected to be completely done by October 2016. However, due to a great quality of work provided by the workers, the dam’s construction was a bit faster than the actual schedule for which it was supposed to achieve a level of 175 meters in the year 2013, but it was completed in the year 2009. Section 2: Strategy Alignment When the TGD project was approved in 1993, Chinese government then set up The Three Gorges Corporation (TGC) (internationalrivers.org, n.d) to manage the construction of Three Gorges Project. At that time, TGC is one of the best international clean energy corporation and was mandated to develop and operate hydropower projects on the Yangtze River. To ensure a better and efficient management, TGC split the work into few parts. For the construction of the dam, Sinohydro is given the responsibilities as it is the world’s largest hydropower construction company (internationalrivers.org, n.d). For the transmission works, State Grid Corporation is given a mandate while for operation Yangtze Power Company is responsible. The ability and reputation that all these company had is the main reason why they are the best choice to operate and manage the construction of this big scale project.Realizing the complexity and difficulties to construct this dam, advance technologies were used throughout the construction to ensure everything was on schedule. A complex system such as long and fast moving conveyor belt was built to transport large quantities of cement from mixing plants to the dam (David, 2013). To raise this conveyors, six tower cranes that was fitted with jacking systems were used and using swinging telescopic conveyors, the concrete can be poured at a rate of 600 cubic yards per hour (David, 2013). Using advanced technologies during the construction had absolutely accelerate the construction of this dam.Of this big scale project, funding will first come into consideration. This project is expected to cost $25 billion (internationalrivers.org, n.d) and it is a huge amount of money. Delay in project construction may lead to the seeking of international financing at which a year delay may cause financial loss at almost $4.3 billion (Jie, n.d). Project management then make a domestic bank loans and at the beginning of project implementation $4.3 billion is provided (Jie, n.d). They also set up China Yantze Power Co. Ltd as a body to run IPO of the power generation assets as part of the funding. Due to the complexity and also financial pressure, project management then seek help from the expert from other countries. AGRA Monenco which is from Canada is an international engineering and construction management company provide systems layout and engineering, testing, operational guidance and training (Laura, 2005). Apart from that, a company from Canada as well, Hydro-Quebec International is responsible in supervising the construction of 900 kilometer transmission line from the TGD to Changzou (Laura, 2005). Seeking advice and help from the expert worldwide is one of the key of success for this project to finish ahead of schedule.Section 3: Management of Risk Construction of TGD has been controversial since it was proposed as it gives huge social impact to the countries in that region. The main issue that was brought up during the building of this dam is human displacement for which the issue made the headlines domestically and globally. To achieve something is to sacrifice something is the best situation to describe what is happening during the construction of this dam where to continue with the construction, they need to resettle the people who live within the dam. However, the locals protested as most of them live as a farmer and fisherman. The construction of the dam will need them to move to another place and leave their farms behind. Simply said, they will lost their job to earn their living. It is expected that 1.13 million of people in the reservoir area need to be displaced (Xibao and Yan, 2013) and they need to migrate to a new home. However, 1.25 million people have been moved to make way for this dam. The situation becomes worse when they wrongly estimated number of people need to be displaced as more people need to be displaced than estimated. To mitigate with this situation, the government then promised farmland, jobs, and even cash compensation to them who were displaced. The government then made few improvements to the resettlement policy of TGD where instead of placing them to uphill sites, the people were move to further resettlement destinations. The government also re-established those local industrial enterprises by restructuring and creating small and non-profitable enterprise (Xibao, Yan and Guishan, 2013). Both resettlement policy play an important role during the TGD project resettlement to mitigate the impacts of this gigantic human resettlement program. In addition, the government introduced the Follow-up Comprehensive Planning of the Three Gorges Project (Xibao, Yan and Guishan, 2013) at which $14 billion USD was spent to develop social and economic , creating jobs within reservoir area, and also to give subsidy to the resettlers for them to have basic asset and also medical insurances. Section 4: Conclusions: Evaluation of Project SuccessTo evaluate the success of this project, the objectives and the expectations of this project must be taken into account. When it was first proposed, this project received a lot of critics and objection from everyone due to its social and environmental impact. However once it is constructed, the outcomes from this project seems to overshadow all the critics. The ability of this dam to generate 800 billion kWh by the end of 2014 (The Three Gorges Project, March 2015) which exceed the world record effectively can cater with China’s economy demand at that time making it an important clean energy base in China. At the same time, this dam also generate electricity without greenhouse gas emissions which is friendly to the environment. During the flood seasons in 2010, this dam underwent inflow peak floods of 70000 m3s-1 while in 2012, 71200 m3s-1 which have a high potential reducing the flood risks. Furthermore, TGD change the outflow of water from Yangtze River to the Poyang Lake, which also change the correlation between them. This in turn weakened the forcing river on the lake, that increase the flow of lake to the river from July-March (Hua and Qi, 2012) and hence mitigate the flood risks. As a result of improving navigation from Yichang to Chongqing, 10000 tonnes fleet can travel all the way from Hankou to Chongqing, which the transportation costs could be reduce and making Yangtze River an extremely profitable watercourse.Overall, what is expected from this project becomes a reality. The ability of the project management to complete the construction few years ahead without any delays is the prove this project is a big success. Furthermore, although the dam is said to exceed the estimated initial cost, and will not be able to cover the investment made, but that is deniable. Actually the dam is within the budget, and once the transmission grid is updated, the demand for its electricity will increase which will allow the dam to pay for itself (Chinadam.com, n.d). Enough said, the construction of Three Gorges Project dam is a big success and a project that can be proud of and all those failures made during the construction has been quickly recovered by the project management.