Sea liquid brines, solid salts and other impurities
Sea ice is a thin and solid layer that forms by the freezing of surface seawater and is characterized by a multiphase structure that includes ice crystals as well as gas, liquid brines, solid salts and other impurities (Thomas and Diekmann, 2009). InM1 low temperatures, sea ice forms on the ocean’s surface, starting as a thin sheet of crystals that grow into a salty ice. Salt particles called brines are trapped in the ice crystals as they freeze. When no water turbulences are present, their growth is regular and a uniform columnar ice type is formed with the c-axis of the crystals aligned in the horizontal plane. In such a structure, brine inclusions can potentially migrate downwards along vertically oriented channels whose shape is governed by the temperature (Reid et al., 2006). Sea ice has a bright surface that reflects sunlight back into space. Because the areas covered by sea ice absorb little solar energy, the temperatures in the polar regions are relatively cool.
If the physical properties of the fresh-water ice, are well known, the sea ice is a relatively complex substance and its properties are still under study. The transformation to a completely solid mixture of pure ice and solid salts is attained only at very low temperatures, so extreme that they are rarely encountered in nature. The physical properties of sea ice depend strongly on salinity, temperature and age. (Schwerdtfecer, 1963)
The salinity of sea ice is governed by both age and location. For example, because of its rapid formation, Antarctic first year sea ice contains more brines trapped in its granular structure, and remains quite saline with time. (Mattei et al., 2017)
Global warming still affects sea ice formation because when the increasingly warming temperatures melt sea ice, less bright surfaces are available to reflect sunlight back into space. The Solar energy is absorbed at the surface, and temperatures increase further (Weeks, 2010).
The study of Arctic sea ice has recently gathered importance for both climate change monitoring (Vinnikov et al., 1999; Vihma, 2014) and possible trans-Arctic trade shipping along the Northwest Passage (Ho, 2010).
In the present study, we focus on the electric and magnetic properties of the sea ice samples and how these properties vary in function of temperature and frequency.