Rhizobia legumes’ roots and stems, to fix nitrogen

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Rhizobia
are gram negative and non-pathogenic soil bacteria (Saha and Haque, 2005). The
name rhizobia firstly coined by Frank in 1889, as they form nodules on root and
stem of leguminous plants (Jordan, 1984). Rhizobia are either acid or alkali
producing and do not tolerate high temperature as well as high salt concentration
(Adhikari et al., 2012). There are
numerous of rhizobial species in the soil and every species has individual
interest to its host plant. There are more than 98 species of rhizobia
belonging to 14 genera of ? and ? proteobacteria, make symbiosis with legume
host (Berrada and
Fikri-Benbrahim, 2014). They have a large symbiosis island of about 860 kb in
total size that has been split into three fragments and distributed into
different location in genome (Kaneko et
al., 2011). In general, rhizobia have the symbiotic plasmid for symbiotic nitrogen
fixation genes (MacLean et al., 2007).

Nitrogen
badly needed  element for all plants
because it is directly involved in the photosynthesis process of plants (Kumar et al., 2004). Leguminous plants have a
symbiotic relationship with rhizobia which fix nitrogen and enrich nutritional
value of plants (Payakapong et al.,
2006).     

 

Soybea(Glycine max L.) n is the world’s foremost oilseed, being used for the human being and others
and which deserved seventh among world crops by tonnage harvested (Ross-Ibarra et al., 2007). It contains unsaturated
fatty acids, minerals like Ca and P including vitamin A, B, D and different
nutritional needs. The soybean seeds contain about 40-45% protein, 18-20%
edible oil, hence it is referred as “the protein hope of future” as
well as “the miracle golden bean” (Rahman, 1982).

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Plants cannot fix nitrogen on their own alone but it is
essential to make nutrients, amino acids and proteins (Goormachtig
et al., 2014). Through a symbiotic relationship rhizobia form nodules on legumes’ roots and stems, to fix
nitrogen into a usable form. The process of this N-fixation was discovered by
the Dutch microbiologist Martinus Beijerinck. Rhizobia fix atmospheric nitrogen
or dinitrogen (N2) into nitrogenous compounds, for instance, NH3,
NH4+, which are then incorporated into amino acids and
utilized by the plants (Djordjevic et
al., 2015; McNeill
and Unkovich, 2007).

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