“Review citizens. Secondly, the voting process which will

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“Review on mobility
based secured e­-voting system”

Jayshree Gajabe, Mrs. Rashmi Jain

 Computer Science & engineering, Rajiv
Gandhi College of Engineering, Nagpur.

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Email: [email protected]

Email: [email protected]  



  Abstract—The word
“vote” means to choose from a list. The main goal of voting  is to come up with leaders of the people’s
choice. In our conventional voting system we have problems when it comes to
voting. Some of the problems involved include ridging votes during election,
insecure or inaccessible polling stations, inadequate polling materials. Due to
such problems the percentage of voting in India is getting decrease year by
year. This E-voting system seeks to address the above issues. User(candidates)
will able to vote from their places using internet. In this system, assuming
that every person has smart phone we will design a Smartphone compatible
application. In this application we will authenticate the user by its aadhar
card number. After authenticating user will able to see list of candidates.
Then the vote of user will be stored on database server in encrypted formats
using encryption algo. This transmission of data from end user application to
database server will be encrypted by using cryptography. For this purpose Diffie-Hellman
algorithm will be used.

Keywords— Election, e-voting, Android, Web server.     


E-Voting system based on public-key encryption cryptosystem is proposed in this
work. This protocol is summarized in three processes: firstly, access control
process which involves the identification and authentication phases for the
applied citizens. Secondly, the voting process which will be done by ciphering
the voter information using public-key encryption cryptosystem, to be submitted
over an insecure network to the specified government election server. Finally,
the election server administrator will sort the final result by deciphering the
received encrypted information using private key. Actually, this E-Voting
protocol is more efficient than traditional Voting protocols since the voter
can vote from his/her own  mobile
application without any extra cost and effort.   The main aim of the work is to allow mobile users for
e-voting with the help of distributed system. It will verify whether the voting
is done by an authorized user or not and provide the vote count after e-voting.


a method to encrypt data which can only be decrypted at
specified time this can be useful to encrypt some time sensitive data like
bidding offer or electronic vote. They used a combination of public key
encryption and hash function to enable decryption only at certain time. But
this method does not cover communication between client and server and how to
store votes in the database in a secure manner1.

To protect the confidentiality of the voters, they design
a paper ballot that will be teared after people have given a vote. The teared paper
ballot then can be used to count the voting result while maintaining voter
privacy. Unlike the conventional paper ballot which always have parties and
candidates printed on the same order, this method randomized the order, but
still can be correctly counted2.

There are some related research regarding this issues. The
overall design of e-voting
infrastructure was proposed in this. They built a working ecosystem to deploy a
remote voting and ensure its security especially the verifiability to ensure
the votes are valid and able to detect unauthorized one. The mechanism was to
match several parts of the secure key in some servers3.

The attack to the verifiability of vote data was given in
this. The clash attack was simple since it exploited the voting machine to
supply different votes from the same voter. The author provided the
countermeasure by using the serial number on
printed receipt to Wombat and Helios e-voting systems4.

Another ballot integrity procedure was proposed by
employing entanglement between two parties5.

There were three phases included: initial, voting, and
verification phase. A formal model for both weak and strong verifiability. They
proof the proposed model to Helios-C(Helios with Credential) system. However,
we propose another system to provide more secure ballot in e- voting
environment built on top of our own system6.

this system, assuming that every person has smart phone they had design a smart
phone compatible application. In this application they had authenticated the
user by its aadhar card number along with biometrics such as face recognition
or finger print recognition. After authenticating user will able to see list of
candidates. Then the vote of user will be stored on database server. This
transmission of data from end user application to database server will be
encrypted by using cryptography. For this purpose AES algorithm will be used7.

Technology moulds the life style of human in a
promoting manner. We prefer reducing time and efforts in all our chores. One of
the systems used majorly for this purpose is ON-LINE where security is the
major concern. This paper provides a secure approach for online voting system
using the concept of encryption and digital signature. We have implemented the
concept of AES and RSA algorithm8.

E-Voting means the voting process in election by using electronic device. In
this proposed system described how the android mobile phones are efficient and
can be used for voting. The android platform is used to develop an application.
Our system support simultaneous voting due to the distributed nature of the
database. During election electronic device is used for voting process. A voter
may only need to register only once for a particular election and that does
all, voter need to cast his /her vote without actually have to present at the
voting cell. The registration process must be done at Booth application for
once then voter is been given a facility to vote from his/her Android mobile
phone irrespective of his/her location. This proposed system suppose to propose
a new e-voting system, which ensures voter confidentiality and voting accuracy,
thus providing an important framework that based on unique identification
ADHAAR ID (U-ID) number. An online solution is very useful as the information
about the voters and the election committee is also made available to the
people in this system9.

is an important part of the democratic  process.
The electorate makes a decision or expresses an opinion that is accepted for
everyone. Some parts could be interested in the election results deviation
without anyone else noticing it. However, ensuring that the whole voting
process is performed correctly and according to current rules and law is, then,
even more important. We present in this work a review of existing verification
systems for electronic voting systems, from both academia and the commercial world.
To do so, we realize a fair comparison against a set of representative voting
verification systems, by using an evaluation framework. We define this
framework to be composed of several properties and covering important system
areas, ranging from the user interaction to security issues. We then model the
natural evolution of verifiability issues on electronic voting systems, which
are influenced by restrictions on current laws and by technological advances10.

voting has been an active research field for application of cryptographic
techniques in the last two decades with many schemes and systems in
publication. In this paper we present an overview of recent efforts in
developing voting schemes and security models that involve a variety of real world
constraints to ensure election integrity. We classify voting schemes based on
their primary cryptographic techniques. We analyze recent typical schemes and
systems against the basic and counter attack requirements with brief
description. Such analysis shows difference among these security requirements
and aids in design of future schemes. Our conclusion is provided regarding
suitability of a particular voting system/scheme under various conditions11.









RSA Algorithm

RSA is
a cryptosystem which is known as one of the first practicable public-key
cryptosystems and is widely used
for secure data transmission

1.it is public key cipher
2.RSA algorithm is hard to crack.
3.RSA algo the public key to encrypt

1.Slow signing and
decryption, which are slightly tricky to implement securely.
2.Very slow key
3.Key is vulnerable to various attacks if poorly

     Diffie Hellman

A simple public-key algorithm is
Diffie-Hellman key exchange .This protocol enables two users to
establish  a secret key using a
public-key scheme based on discrete logarithms.

sender and receiver have no prior knowledge of each other.
can take place through an insecure channel.
of secret key is safe.

1.can not be used for symmetric key
2.can not used for signing digital
3.the nature of diffie-hellman key
exchange does make it susceptible to man in the middle attacks in the

Digital Signature

DSS is uses the secure hash algorithm
a digital signature is an authentication mechanism that enable the creator of
a message to attach a code that acts as a signature.

1.Non repudiation, because the author cannot
be denied of his work(he created and sent).
2.Imposter prevention Integrity of
data, ever change will be detected.

1.Expiry:Digital signatures, like all
technological products, are highly dependent on the technology it is based

Hash Function

Hash function also called as message
digest and one way encryption, are in some sense use no key.

main advantage is synchronization.
2.in many situations, hash tables turn
out more efficient than lookup structures.

1.hash collisions are practically
2.hash tables becomes quite
inefficient when there are many collisions.




Fig.1 Example of E-voting




traditional voting system the percentage of voting is getting low year by year.
There are so many security issues also due to which frauds happens in voting system.
So our proposed  e-voting system which
will be a highly secure. Through this system a user can cast his vote from any
remote location. And hence percentage of voting will increase and fraud also
will decrease. Such a highly secure voting system is also very useful in decision
making process in any organization.





1R.L.Rivest, A. Shamir and D.A Wagner
(1996), ” Time lock puzzles and time related Crpto”, Research Showcase @ MIT.


2 H. Pan, E. Hou, and N. Ansari (2011), “Ensuringvoters’ and candidate confidentiality in E-voting
systems”, 34th IEEE Sarnoff  Symposium.


3 A. Hassan and X. Zhang (2013), “Design and build a secure e-voting
infrastructure,” IEEE Systems,Technology and Applications Conference.


4 R. Kusters, T. Truderung and A. Vogt (2012), “Clash
attacks on the verifiability of e-voting systems,” IEEE Symposium on Security
and Privacy.

5 H. Alshammari, K. Elleithy, K. Almgren, and S. Albelwi (2014), “Group
signature entanglement in e-voting system,” IEEE Systems, Application and Technology


6 V. Cortier, D. Galindo , S. Glondu, and M.Izabachene
(2014), “Election verifiability for Helios under weaker trust assumptions,”
Computer Security- ESORICS.


7 Ketaki Bhoyar
,Pranav R. Patil ,Ashish R. Zaware ,Arvind S. Pawar (2015), “An
Assurable E-Voting System That Ensures Voter Confidentiality and Voting
Accuracy,” International Journal of Computer Applications.Volume 132 – No.14, December2015


8Jena Catherine Bel.D,
Savithra.K , Divya.M “A Secure Approach for E-Voting Using Encryption and Digital Signature”,2015 IJEDR | NC3N 2015


9Akshay Akhare A,Manoj Gadale R,Rajashree
Raskar S,Bhagyashree Jaykar V,Mrs. D.A.Phalke”Secure Mobile Based E-Voting
System”, International Journal on
Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication


10  Jordi
Pujol-Ahulló, Roger Jardí-Cedó, and Jordi Castellà-Roca  “Verification Systems for
Electronic Voting  Survey”.


11 Huian Li, Abhishek Reddy Kankanala,
Xukai Zou ,”A Taxonomy and
Comparison of Remote Voting Schemes”,





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