RESEARCH my own classmates and with those having
Before embarking on the details of research methodology and
techniques practiced by me, it seems appropriate to present a brief overview of
the same. My research methodology consists of series of actions or steps
necessary to effectively carry out the research and the desired sequencing of
these steps. The flow chart shown below depicts my step to step methodology to
create this research paper.
All the steps mentioned in the chart are not mutually
exclusive i.e. the steps overlaps continuously. So while formulating this
research work, all the time I have taken into account the subsequent
procedures. Otherwise serious difficulties may have arised which may even
prevent the completion of the study.
A brief description of the above stated steps will be
1. Understanding the research topic : The formulation of a general topic for a
specific research is a very essential part of a research work. And the same
requires a huge and precise understanding of the topic or problem chosen for
the research. As the topic of my research i.e. ‘Demonitisation’ is what most
people are familiar with. So in order to enhance my understanding on the topic,
I discussed it with my own classmates and with those having some expertise in
the matter. Being a part of an academic institution, I seeked help from our
guide who is an experienced man and has several research problems in mind. Our
guide often puts forth the problem in general terms and it was up to me to
narrow it down and phrase the problem in operational terms.
Essentially two methodologies were involved in this step
a. understanding the topic thoroughly.
rephrasing the same into meaningful terms from an analytical point of view.
2. Reviewing the contents of the topic : Examining
of all available resources I have to get myself acquainted with the selected
topic was also an important part of this methodology. For this purpose, I reviewed two types of
data available on the topic :
a. Reviewing the concept of the topic : This includes
conceptual literature concerning the concepts and theories.
the previous researches on the topic : This includes the empirical
literature consisting of studies and researches made earlier which are similar
to the one I selected.
After this, the basic outcome of this review was achieved
and I got a sound knowledge as to what data and other materials are available
for operational purposes which will enable me to specify my own research work
in a meaningful context.
3. Formulating design and format : This task
of formulating or defining the design and format of the research paper is a
step of greatest importance in the entire research process. The problems,
impacts, outcomes, conclusion etc. investigated in my research work were
defined unambiguously so as to discriminate relevant data from irrelevant ones.
Care must, however, has been taken to verify the objectivity and validity of
the background facts concerning the topic.
After the outline was formulated, a brief summary of it was
written down for approval purpose. It was compulsory to write a synopsis of the
topic and submit it to our group,s Instructor Mr. _____________ for approval.
It was only after his approval that I carried on my work.
Formulation of the ‘objective of the research’ has been done
in such a way that it can determine the data which are to be collected, the
characteristics of the data which are relevant, relations which are to be
explored, the choice of techniques to be used in these explorations and the
form of the final report. In fact, formulation of the whole research paper
followed a sequential pattern where a number of formulations are set up, each
formulation more specific than the preceeding one, each one phrased in more
analytical terms, and each more realistic in terms of the available data and
4. Collecting the data : The task of data
collection begins after the research problem has been defined and and research
design/plan chalked out. Dealing with a real life topic such as
“Demonitisation”, I often found that data at hand are inadequate, and hence, it
becomes necessary to collect data that are appropriate. There were several ways
of collecting the appropriate data which differ considerably in context of
money costs, time and other resources available.
While deciding about the method of data collection to be
used for the study, I came across two types of data viz., primary and
secondary. The primary data are those
which are collected afresh and for the first time, and thus happen to be
original in character. The secondary data, on the other hand, are those which
have already been collected by someone else and which have already been passed
through the statistical process. The methods of collecting primary and
secondary data differ since primary data are to be originally collected, while
in case of secondary data the nature of data collection work is merely that of
Keeping in view of the objectives of the study, only secondary data has been used in this
research work. While utilizing secondary data, one has look into various
sources from where it can be obtained.
For this purpose, the abstracting and indexing journals and
published or unpublished bibliographies were the first place of my reference.
Academic journals, conference proceedings, government reports, books etc were
also tapped. At the same time, data has been collected from various research
papers, magazines and articles. In addition to this study, data have also been
collected from various newspapers, economical and political weekly and the
research is also based on the referred sources- published, unpublished and
Usually published data are available in:
Various publications of the central, state and
publications of foreign governments or of international bodies and their
Technical and trade journals.
Books, magazines and newspapers.
Reports and publications of various associations
connected with business and industry, banks etc.
Reports prepared by research scholars,
universities, economists ect.
Public records and statistics.
The sources of unpublished data used in this research paper
are also many. I collected them from diaries, letters, unpublished biographies
and autobiographies and also from scholars, research workers, trade
associations, labour bureaus and other public/private individuals and
The electronic data has been mainly collected from the
Internet, which provided me the maximum data specially the quantitative ones
i.e. graphical statistics, research outcomes etc.
Here, my methodology has been to make a minute scrutiny in
every data I have collected rather to accept them blind-foldedly. Also,
necessary arguments has been made if any specific data was found unsuitable or
with any limitations. Only those datas and statistics were included in this
research paper which fulfills all the following criteria:
5. Analysing data : After the data have been
collected, the task was to analyse them. The analysis of data required a number
of closely related methodologies such as establishment of categories, the
application of these categories to raw data through coding, tabulation and then
drawing statistical inferences. Coding
operation has been done in this stage through which the categories of data were
transformed into symbols that may be tabulated and counted. Editing has also been done to improve
the quality of the data for coding. After coding, the tabulation of the data was done in which the classified data were
put in the form of tables.
6. Entering the data to prepare the research paper
: Finally, the preparation of the paper with the classified datas and
statistics was done by me. Writing of this research paper has been done with
great care with applications of the following methodologies:
(a) The layout of the
report should be as follows: (i) the preliminary pages; (ii) the main text and
(iii) the end matter.
In its preliminary pages the report carries Introducton and
objectives of the study. The main text of the report contains table of contents
followed by a list of tables and list of graphs and charts, summary of the
findings and the main report. At the end of the report, conclusion of the
research was enlisted in respect of all technical data.