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Research QuestionWhat are the effects on vineyards caused by the Drosophila suzukii?Background My environmental issue is a local and global one. There is a species of flies infesting vineyards in Napa and all over the world such as Germany, affecting any wine region. This is an issue because it is affecting wine production in the areas, which is dangerous for those who rely on wine production, and people are worried about it affecting Napa. The insects infest the vineyards and destroy them, leaving many with no vineyards left. My independent variable is the Drosophila suzukii population, and my dependent is the grapevines before and after the infestation. My independent affects the dependent because the Drosophila suzukii, shown in figure 1, are the ones affecting the grapevines and the bigger the population, the worse the grapevines are affected. There is also a comparison on how the grapevines are prior to an infestation to after. The reason the Drosophila suzukii population are affecting grapevines is because they come into vineyards and feed on the grapes before harvest, causing those grapes to be unusable due to them being fed on, which could also affect a vineyard owner. Figure 2 shows an Drosophila suzukii feeding on a grape in a vineyard, showing how they get into the grapes. Some controversy is that there are chemicals that fight off these insects, but using them around fruit that are going to be used for consumption could be dangerous. There are also people who are against using chemicals period, whether it’s for a good reason or not. I expect to find how deeply these insects are really affecting vineyards and vineyard owners, and why exactly these insects are infesting these vineyards. I expect this because it has affected people and vineyards globally and locally, so it is a well-known issue. The impact of my results might be to educate people who might not feel affected by it as a vineyard owner, but to inform those who live nearby these areas and those who consume products from vineyards to try to get them to try and help if they can. I think by informing people of stuff they can do to help that’s small just by being a local can have a big impact.figure 1 figure 2VariablesIndependent VariableThe variable being changed is the population size of the Drosophila suzukii. It’s being changed by collecting data from areas who were affected by on infected with Drosophila suzukii that had different sizes of populations. The treatment group is places that have a high population of these insects in their country or state and it? being changed by having different countries and states. Dependent VariableI expect the amount of grapevines affected by Drosophila suzukii to vary based on how many insects were infesting the vineyards. It’s being measured by how much percentage of vineyards were lost to Drosophila Suzukii. It’ll be specified based on area such as a country or U.S. state. Controlled Variables I will keep the the dependent variable the same by only considering the impact the insects have on vineyards, I will keep the independent variable the same by only measuring the effect Drosophila suzukii has on the vineyards, and only talking about places that have been severely affected by the insects or consider the insects a great threat. I need to control that vineyards are only discussed as being affected by Drosophila suzukii because it’s what’s relevant to my research question and what I’m focusing on. The insects only being Drosophila suzukii needs to be controlled because that’s the particular insect I’m focusing on, and a different insect could affect a vineyard differently than the Drosophila suzukii. They will be controlled by only collecting and considering data that discusses how vineyards were affected by Drosophila suzukii and what the impact was. I also need to make sure I discuss countries that are more affected because discussing countries that haven’t been greatly affected won’t benefit my data. I will monitor this by taking data from countries and states that reported being affected by Drosophila suzukii. Materials and MethodsMaterialsChromebookInternetGoogleEasybibMethodsFirst, I opened up google docs to this documentI filled out what I already knew and what was based off of my proposal prior to my researchI then did more background research to learn about Drosophila Suzukii better and how they invade vineyardsTo conduct my research, I looked up my question I google scholar and google to find sources with data that fit what I was looking for, I used google scholar to get more reliable sources such as a university or organization for data rather than something like wikipedia To pick what countries and states I was going to use for Table 1, I picked the ones that categorized Drosophila Suzukii as invasiveAfterwards, I looked up places that experienced losses due to Drosophila Suzukii and made a table based off of examples I foundThen I filled in the rest of this document reflecting on my research and what I foundSafety and Ethical Considerations There are no safety or ethical considerations that affect me in this investigation. There is not safety or ethical considerations because I’m collecting my data through secondary sources, meaning I’m researching by reading websites and what data they’ve collected. There are also no safety or ethical considerations for those who collected the data originally as they weren’t working with chemicals or something harmful. DataTable 1: Distribution table of invasive Drosophila Suzukii (based off of chart in source 1)Country/U.S. StateOriginDistributionJapanIntroducedWidespreadMexicoIntroducedRestricted distributionHawaiiIntroducedWidespreadMichiganIntroducedWidespreadCroatiaNo dataRestricted distributionFranceIntroducedRestricted distributionPortugalIntroducedPresent, few occurrences This table is a list of all the countries and U.S. States that have reported the invasive presence of Drosophila Suzukii, with the addition of Portugal that has had an attack on grapes. It details how much of the country/state has been invaded by the insects by distribution and states the origin of the insects in relevance to the country. Table 2: Losses of Harvest because of Drosophila Suzukii invasion (based off of accounts from source 3, source 4, and source 5)Country/StatePercentage of LostYearVirginia33.33%2015France30.00%2014Japan70.00-80.00%1939Connecticut and Rhode Island20.00-50.00%2014This table shows the losses of harvest grapes in vineyards for some countries and states at the hands of Drosophila Suzukii interference. The year the loss happened is also shown. Conclusion I concluded that Drosophila suzukii have severely impacted people and vineyards by infestations. This is shown in table 2, where we see the percent of harvest lost in areas due to Drosophila suzukii in some of the U.S. states and other countries. Though there are no long-term effects on vineyards, there is clearly an effect on vineyards these insects are having as crops of grapes were lost following a Drosophila suzukii infestation right before harvest. I notice that though there are countries that reported being infested and having a prominent population of the insects, I found data of grape harvest being lost for only two of those countries. This may prove that there isn’t a relationship or correlation between the population of Drosophila suzukii being prominent in one area and the vineyards there being affected. These instances of losing harvest due to these insects despite not having a prominent amount of the population in that area might prove that they don’t attack when in a huge population. DiscussionI concluded that there is an effect Drosophila suzukii is having on vineyards, which is destroying them and interruption harvest for those who grow them. In another experiment, Research into the Fruit-fly Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, Drosophila suzukii were investigated and it was discovered these insects attack damaged fruit, showing that these insects are known to feed on fruits including grapes. The only data I’d consider anomalous is that most of the countries that had big populations of Drosophila suzukii didn’t have reported losses in vineyards, only two. This might be because the countries who have them are aware and know how to and are dealing with them. As for reliability, I got most of my data from the same source table 1, and in table 2 there are some from different sources but they’re all talking about the same thing. This issue can connect to the issue of agriculture in itself contributing to greenhouse gases because many who are affected by the insects seek to fight them off through pesticides, which is a component in greenhouses gases. The solution to this, as said, would be using pesticides and other repellents to keep the insects away, but using pesticides can add to greenhouse gases, which would be a weakness as well as people who oppose using chemicals in agriculture. However, a strength would be that it would get rid of these insects and would lead to more production in vineyards. There are also other possible ways to get rid of them by not using pesticides, just traps like the ones used for wasps. EvaluationA strength is that the research was already conducted so it didn’t have to be done or conducted, and in other regions making the data broader, I just had to look up sources and experiments previously done, and that the experiments or data I found were collected by scientists and organizations so they tended to be reliable data. A weakness was finding data I wanted to use or felt fit what I was looking for to answer my question, and trying to understand any data or research I found. The impact of the research being already conducted was that I didn’t have to go out conduct any experiments and that there were other people who researched something similar so I could get a better understanding of what I was researching and learned more about Drosophila Suzukii in other situations. The impact of the limitation was that I had to adjust my question and other parts of my IA to fit the data that I did find because I ended up not finding exactly what I was looking for originally and many experiments and research about this insect weren’t related to grapes and vineyards particularly. I would maybe make my question a little more broad to cover more than vineyards because it would then be easier to find my data to use, and would answer my question more. I also could’ve expanded my question to include other species and insects, but how they all affect vineyards or lead to an invasion of Drosophila suzukii.ExtensionI would investigate further why these insects can’t be stopped effectively, and how they impact other fruits and people, not just limiting to vineyards and grapes. An additional research question I’d propose is to what extent is the Drosophila suzukii affecting agriculture? This research would be relevant because it could then be compared to the vineyards and the damage being caused there. It can also allow a better understanding of the insect, which may help us be able to stop them. It could also help prevent any major infestations and protect future crops that could be targeted by these insects.