Resarch and political representation.The elimination of inequalities
Resarch paper : GENDER INEQUALITY 1.Introduction • Definition Gender inequality is the idea and situation that women and men are not equal. It refers to the view that men and women should receive equal treatment, and should not be discriminated due to gender, unless there is a valid biological reason for different treatment .•Background information Gender inequality stems from distinctions, whether empirically grounded or socially constructed. Women lag behind men in many domains, including education, labor market opportunities and political representation.The elimination of inequalities between women and men is essential for the creation of a stronger, fair and united Europe. The challenges of our era, from poverty to unemployment to the consequences of climate change, can not be resolved without first ensuring that women and men have access to equal opportunities to make their own potential.2.Body part – Main points : • VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMENVarious episodes regarding to violence against women reveal how a woman can feel insecure and may feel uncomfortable in being in the world getting to the point of believing that as a woman she should not be in a certain place and dressed in a certain way. The forms of violence are different: they range from the continuous insult to verbal disqualification, from harassment to the most extreme cases of rape and murder. The majority of violence occurs within the family, in one’s own friendship, or the nearest context to the woman. According to some researches, women better educated or with a better social position tend to be even more threatened because this status of women can trigger i some men forms of aggression dictated by the denial of the stereotype. •How to solve the problem of Violence against womenIt is considered essential an educational action in schools to overcome stereotypes and underline beliefs about gender roles in society recognized as a cultural cause of violence against women and gender inequalities in all areas of life. To achieve this goal, adequate resources are also indispensable for anti-violence centers and shelters, as well as the training of all professional figures come into contact with women who suffer violence. • WORKPLACEEmployment of women is very often hidden and unpaid.In all countries, the average female wage is lower than the male’s one , even for the same job. Various statistics confirm that the unemployment rate largely affects women. In the underdeveloped nations, the budget is further aggravated: perhaps female labor is strongly concentrated in agriculture. In rural areas, women generally work more than men, even if this does not appear in statistical surveys. In some African countries, women make up 60% of the agricultural workforce and produce up to 80% of the foodstuffs. Despite this, the salary is considerably lower than men’s. In some cases the female workforce is not even remunerated. •CULTURAL A research carried out by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) states that two thirds of the world’s illiterate are women. The problem is mainly concentrated in developing countries. Girls have a greater workload and fewer opportunities to attend school. Consequently, the level of female literacy and acculturation is almost always lower than men’s one. However, there is a figure that gives hope for the future. In Third World countries, in terms of adult education and schooling, women traveled between 1970 and 1990 more than half of the path that separates them from men. Yet this is not enough. It will take time to see an effective cultural equality in the world between man and woman. •SOCIAL More serious is the social treatment to which woman is subjected. Freedom has always been denied. Even more traumatic than oppressive poverty is violence that ruins the lives of so many women. In Africa it is now a tradition for girls to undergo genital mutilation. Rape is another form of abuse and studies indicate that in some countries, one in six women is raped in life. For so many selfish men who think only of their pleasure it has become normal to “use” women instead of loving them. Even in less disadvantaged contexts, the treatment reserved for women can be noted. As a child her position within the family is generally subordinated to the brothers’ one. Female sex is considered weak. Families try to “get rid of” the girls quickly. In economically backward countries, women are married even at the age of sixteen. The states have promulgated laws in favor of women’s rights. To contribute to the solution of the problem, it is necessary to ensure that current social and cultural values ??change for the better. •SPORT Sport is traditionally a sector dominated by men and the progress made in gender equality in this field is held back by the social conceptions of femininity and masculinity, which often associate sport with “masculine” characteristics such as physical strength and resistance , speed and a very combative spirit, if not even aggressive. Women who engage in sports can be seen as “masculine”, while men who are not interested in sports can be considered “unmanly”. Furthermore media stereotypes keep women in the background. Media can play an important role in strengthening or, conversely, in the weakening of gender stereotypes in sports. The application of gender stereotypes to male and female athletes by the media is well documented and often the athletes are sexualized: they tend to represent them in a way that helps to overshadow the results obtained in the competitions, emphasizing the femininity and sexual attraction instead of strength and skills. Fortunately, nowadays the relation women-sport is improving.•HOW TO SOLVE GENDER INEQUALITY.The fight against discrimination and gender violence requires the mobilization of a plurality of social tools and actors that face the problem from different points of view: economic, cultural and social. Important tools of the intervention become the training of operators who specialize in the subject, the development of procedures for welcoming and listening to the victims that accompany them in the process of material and moral empowerment that allows them to acquire adequate skills and resources to escape from violence, the coordination between services for a cooperative action against the violence.