(b) (b) 30.30 per cent of each

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(b) Fraternal Twins

(c) Paternal Twins

(d) Maternal Twins

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(e) None of the above

2. During the period of ovum, the zygote gets its nourishment from:

(a) The DNA

(b) The genes

(c) The placenta

(d) The yolk

(e) None of the above

3. Egocentrism is a major hinderance to:

(a) Language Development

(b) Prenatal Development

(c) Cognitive Development

(d) Motor Development

(e) None of the above

4. The stage of ‘concrete operations’ continues from:

(a) Ages 7 to 12

(b) Ages 5 to 8

(c) Ages 3 to 9

(d) Ages 2 to 6

(e) None of the above

5. The entire hereditary endoment of baby is determined at the time of:

(a) Ovulation

(b) Menstruation

(c) Fertilization

(d) Maturation

(e) None of the above

6. From each of the parents, the child gets:

(a) 23 Chromosomes

(b) 46 Chromosomes

(c) 280 Chromosomes

(d) 48 Chromosomes

(e) None of the above

7. A fertilized ovum contains:

(a) 48 Chromosomes in total

(b) 22 Chromosomes in total

(c) 23 Chromosomes in total

(d) 46 chromosomes in total

(e) None of the above

8. Identical twins are:

(a) Never of the same sex

(b) Usually of the same sex

(c) Always of the same sex

(d) Of same sex depending upon the chromo­somes

(e) None of the above

9. A fertilized ovum contains:

(a) 23 Chromosomes

(b) 23 pairs of Chromosomes

(c) 46 sets of Chromosomes

(d) 23 matched chromosomes

(e) None of the above

10. Each child inherits only:

(a) 25 per cent of each parental genes

(b) 30.30 per cent of each parental genes

(c) 50 per cent of each parental genes

(d) 20 per cent of each parental genes

(e) None of the above

11. When a female ovum containing X chromosomes unites with a sperm containing Y chromosome at the time of conception:

(a) A male child is produced

(b) A female child is produced

(c) An identical twin is produced

(d) A fraternal twin is produced

(e) None of the above

12. The hereditary factors in the germ cell which shape the constitution and behaviour of the developing individual are called:

(a) Genes

(b) Chromosomes

(c) Ova

(d) Sperms

(e) None of the above

13. Recent work by geneticists has placed the number of genes in man at about:

(a) 30,000

(b) 50,000

(c) 60,000

(d) 40,000

(e) None of the above

14. The hereditary constitution of a child is fixed at:

(a) Birth

(b) Childhood

(c) Conception

(d) Adulthood

(e) None of the above

15. When a child is conceived, 23 chromosomes of a male cell and 23 chromosomes of a female cell combine to form a single cell called:

(a) A neonate

(b) A zygote

(c) A gene

(d) a baby

(e) None of the above

16. The process of cell division or splitting is called:

(a) Mitosis

(b) Fertilization

(c) Conception

(d) Synthesis

(e) None of the above

17. The term ‘gene’ is related to the Greek word ‘Genos’ meaning:

(a) Race or offspring

(b) Birth

(c) Conception

(d) Fertilization

(e) None of the above

18. Who told that heredity for any individual is his own native constitution?

(a) Woodworth

(b) Watson

(c) William James

(d) E. B. Titchener

(e) Sigmund Freud

19. The father of modem genetics is:

(a) Goldsby

(b) Deutsch

(c) Gregor Johann Mendel

(d) Brown

(e) Arthur Jensen

20. Mendel’s first law (i.e., law of segregation) states that:

(a) Genes occur in pairs and that one member of the pair is contributed by each parent;

(b) Genes are separated from the very beginning

(c) Heredity is transmitted from parents to offspring by blood

(d) Genes are separated at the time of conception

(e) None of the above

21. Prior to Mendel’s work, it was thought that heredity was transmitted from parents to offsprings by:

(a) Humour

(b) Phlegm

(c) Enzyme

(d) Blood

(e) Bile

22. Mendel’s law of “independent assortment” holds that independent physical entities are the vehicles of:

(a) Genetic transmission

(b) Hereditary transmission

(c) Transduction

(d) Fertilization

(e) None of the above

23. The genotype refers to the genetic makeup the individual inherited from his or her parents where as the phenotype refers to he:

(a) Observed characteristics of the individual

(b) Facial value of the individual

(c) Body constitution of the individual

(d) Peripheral development of the individual

(e) None of the above

24. The entire genetic message of a human being resides in the single cell is called the:

(a) Ovum

(b) Sperm

(c) Zygote

(d) Gamentes

(e) None of the above

25. Genes are made up of chemical molecules technically known as:

(a) Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

(b) Ribonucleic acid (RNA)

(c) Epinephrine

(d) Norepinephrine

(e) None of the above

26. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) contains:

(a) Chromosomes

(b) Genetic code

(c) Zygotes

(d) Fertilized eggs

(e) None of the above

27. Who has received Nobel Prize by cracking the “Genetic Code”?

(a) James Watson and Francis Crick

(b) Hook and Matsuyama

(c) Owen and Witkin

(d) Jervik and Klodin

(e) None of the above.

28. Through a microscope, a chromosome can be photographed. It can be cut out of photographic enlargements and arranged in to pairs according to length. This arrangement is known as a:

(a) Karyotype

(b) Coordination

(c) Synthesis

(d) Phenotype

(e) None of the above

29. The abnormality that results from the absence of an ‘X’ chromosome (XO instead of XX) is known as:

(a) Genetic abnormality

(b) Genetic association

(c) Zygotic incompatibility

(d) Turner Syndrome

(e) None of the above

30. Experimental data on sex chromosome abnormalities revealed that sometimes males have an extra ‘X’ chromosome. This condition is known as:

(a) Klinefelter Syndrome

(b) Turner Syndrome

(c) Zygotic incompatibility

(d) Genetic abnormality

(e) None of the above

31. Heritability ratio is an index which provides a numerical estimate of the relative contri­butions of heredity and environment to the variance of a given trait in:

(a) A specific population

(b) A general population

(c) The total population

(d) A small sample

(e) None of the above

32. When genetic variation is more important than variations in environment in determining the trait variation, the hereditary ratio will be:

(a) Significant

(b) Negligible

(c) Small

(d) large

(e) None of the above

33. Amniocentesis is a procedure which enables the prenatal detection of:

(a) Genetic abnormalities

(b) Chromosome abnormalities

(c) Mutation abnormalities

(d) Behaviour disorder

(e) None of the above

34. In which of the following disorders, a single gene defect causes an insufficiency in the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase?

(a) Goitre

(b) Cretinism

(c) Mongolism

(d) Phenyleketorfuria (PKU)

(e) None of the above

35. Cloning is an asexual form of reproduction in which all progeny are:

(a) Genetically identical

(b) Genetically different

(c) Constitutionally identical

(d) Constitutionally different

(e) None of the above

36. New behaviour patterns are undoubtedly a joint product of:

(a) Perception and Sensation

(b) Maturation and Perception

(c) Attention and Perception

(d) Maturation and Learning

(e) None of the above

37. By age six, the brain reaches:

(a) 90 per cent of adult size

(b) 100 per cent of adult size

(c) 20 per cent of adult size

(d) 50 per cent of adult size

(e) None of the above

38. Growth in height is usually completed by age:

(a) Thirty

(b) Ten

(c) Twenty

(d) Fifteen

(e) None of the above

39. The advantage of the girl over the boy in greater maturity is gradually lost after:

(a) Puberty

(b) Twenty years

(c) Adolescence

(d) Twelve years

(e) None of the above

40. Adolescence ends when the young person is:

(a) Physically fit

(b) Physiologically mature

(c) Psychologically fit

(d) Psychologically mature

(e) None of the above

41. Which one of the following stages is called the ‘period of problem solving behaviour’?

(a) Secondary Circular Reaction.

(b) Tertiary Reaction

(c) Primary Circular Reaction

(d) Reflex

(e) None of the above

42. Incorporation of a new object or idea into an idea or scheme the child already has is known as:

(a) Accommodation

(b) Assimilation

(c) Centration

(d) Casuality

(e) None of the above

43. When the child fails to relate various obser­vations into a consistent whole, it is known as:

(a) Accommodation

(b) Assimilation

(c) Syncretism

(d) Conservation

(e) None of the above

44. The ability of the child to maintain equi­valence in spite of change in the perceptual field is called:

(a) Reversibility

(b) Homeostasis

(c) Classification

(d) Seriaton

(e) None of the above

45. From the ages 2 to 4, the child’s speech is:

(a) Intuitive

(b) Preconcepturn

(c) Egocentric

(d) Concrete

(e) None of the above

46. Preoperational Period of children is sometimes referred to as:

(a) Egocentric Stage

(b) Concrete Operation Stage

(c) Preconceptual Stage

(d) Secondary Circular Reaction Stage

(e) None of the above

47. Assimilation and accommodation are:

(a) Complimentary to each other

(b) Opposite to each other

(c) Equal and similar terms

(d) Reversible terms

(e) None of the above

48. The child shows evidence of symbolic or representational behaviour between:

(a) 3 and 5 months

(b) 8 and 27 months

(c) 18 and 24 months

(d) Nine to Nineteen months

(e) None of the above

49. The most critical period in the development of a child’s life lies between:

(a) Birth to three years

(b) Four to Six years

(c) Seven to Eleven years

(d) Twelve to Sixteen years

(e) None of the above

50. Each gamete contains:

(a) 24 chromosomes

(b) 26 chromosomes

(c) 46 chromosomes

(d) 3 chromosomes

(e) 23 pairs of chromosomes

51. Reproductive or germ cells divide by a process which is essentially a method of reduction division. This process is known as:

(a) Meiosis

(b) Mitosis

(c) Crossing-over

(d) Fertilization

(e) None of the above

52. A process in which each of the 46 chromo­somes in the nucleus of the parent cell dupli­cates itself is called:

(a) Mitosis

(b) Meiosis

(c) Conception

(d) Crossing-Over

(e) None of the above

53. A process in which genetic material is exchanged between pairs of chromosomes is called:

(a) Meiosis

(b) Fertilization

(c) Mitosis

(d) Crossing-Over

(e) None of the above

54. Since, at conception, any possible combi­nation of chromosomes from the sperm and ovum may occur, the number of possible combinations in a zygote is immense. There are about 3.8 billion people alive today, but there are about 70 trillion potential human gentoypes. In addition, increasing the genetic variability is a phenomenon called:

(a) Crossing-over

(b) Meiosis

(c) Mitosis

(d) Fertilization

(e) None of the above

55. The gene is composed of deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA, which contains the genetic code that directs the functioning of:

(a) Ribonucleic acid RNA)

(b) Amino acid

(c) Enzymes

(d) Norepinephrine

(e) None of the above

56. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) serves as a messenger in carrying the DNA-originated directions from the nucleus of a cell to its:

(a) Cytoplasm

(b) Centre

(c) Cell body

(d) Peripheral parts

(e) None of the above

57. In 1926, an environmentalist expounded the following statement in the heat of the nature- nurture controversy:

“Give me a dozen healthy infants, well- formed and my own specific world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take anyone at random and train him to become any type of specialist, I might select—a doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and yes, even into beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations and race of ancestors”

Who was that environmentalist?

(a) E. B. Titchener

(b) J.B. Watson

(c) H. Rheingold

(d) G. R. Patterson

(e) None of the above

58. The process by which the genotype comes to be expressed as a phenotype is called:

(a) Human development

(b) Human Biology

(c) Human metabolism

(d) Human Physiology

(e) None of the above

59. The material inherited from ancestors which makes the individual genetically unique is called:

(a) Genotype

(b) Phenotype

(c) Chromosomes

(d) Genes

(e) None of the above

60. The way genotype is expressed in observable or measurable characteristics of an individual is known as:

(a) Phenotype

(b) Genotype

(c) Transmission

(d) Range of Reaction

(e) None of the above

61. The expression of genotype is modified by a variety of:

(a) Behaviour

(b) Experiences

(c) Temperaments

(d) Habits

(e) None of the above

62. Whether or not a child’s genotype for high intellectual activity is manifested in school performance will depend upon:

(a) Whether or not the child’s parents stimu­late and encourage the child in intellec­tual persuits.

(b) Teacher’s personality in the school

(c) The personalities of the classmates of the child

(d) Whether or not the child’s teachers love and behave in a proper way

(e) None of the above

63. Instead of fixing the behaviour rigidly, heredity establishes a range of possible responses that the individual may make to different environments. Different children will vary in the array of possible responses they will make under different life expe­riences. These genetically based variations of an individual’s responsiveness to environ­ments are called the:

(a) Canalization

(b) Niche Picking

(c) Range of Reaction

(d) Concrete Operation

(e) None of the above

64. The term which is used to describe the limiting of phenotypes to one or few developmental outcomes is known as:

(a) Range of reaction

(b) Canlization

(c) Niche Picking

(d) Centration

(e) None of the above

65. The process by which individuals seek out environments that are most compatible with their biological predispositions is known as:

(a) Canalization

(b) Range of Reaction

(c) Niche picking

(d) Metacognition

(e) None of the above

66. The Double Helix model of the structure and function of DNA was proposed by:

(a) James Watson and Francis Crick (1953)

(b) J. Block and D. M, Buss (1980)

(c) L. Willerman and A. H. Buss (1973)

(d) A. Thomas and S. Chess (1968)

(e) None of the above

67. The Double Helix model explains how genes replicate themselves during:

(a) Cell Division

(b) Mitosis

(c) Transmission

(d) Meiosis

(e) None of the above

68. In the Double Helix model, Watson and Crick suggest that a molecule of DNA is like a spiral staircase or a double helix or coil, with the side strips being composed of molecules of:

(a) Potassium and Salt

(b) Phosphate and Sugar

(c) Calcium and Potassium

(d) Sugar and Salt

(e) None of the above

69. An alternate form of a specific gene at a particular locus on the chromosome is called:

(a) Ovum

(b) Sperm

(c) Allele

(d) Cell

(e) None of the above

70. Suppose a child has two alleles of every gene in his body, one from the mother and one from the father. If the alleles from both parents are the same, the child is said to be:

(a) Homozygous at that locus

(b) Heterozygous at that locus

(c) An Identical Twin

(d) A Fraternal twin

(e) None of the above

71. Of the 23 pairs of chromosomes, 22 pairs are possessed equally by males and females. These are called:

(a) Paired chromosomes

(b) Autosomes

(c) Sex chromosomes

(d) Modifier genes

(e) None of the above

72. A child has two alleles of every gene in his body, one from his mother and one from his father. If the alleles from both parents differ, he is said to be:

(a) Heterozygous

(b) Homozygous

(c) An Identical Twin

(d) A Fraternal Twin

(e) None of the above

73. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a disorder, caused by recessive gene that leads to the absence of an enzyme necessary to metabolize certain types of:

(a) Vitamins

(b) Proteins

(c) Body fluids

(d) Cells

(e) None of the above

74. In 1959, it was demonstrated that Down syndrome is related to deviation in the:

(a) Twenty-first set of chromosomes

(b) Twenty-second set of chromosomes

(c) Twenty-third set of chromosomes

(d) Twentieth set of chromosomes

(e) None of the above

75. Down syndrome is attributable to either translocation or non-disjunction of chromo­some:

(a) 23

(b) 22

(c) 21

(d) 20

(e) None of the above

76. Down Syndrome is one of the genetic disorders which can be detected before birth through:

(a) Case Study

(b) Clinical method

(c) Amniocentesis

(d) Abortion

(e) None of the above

77. Down syndrome is based on non-disjunction of a chromosome where the individual has an extra chromosome or part of a third chromosome on the twenty-first set of Autosomes. This is thought to be a result of failure of chromosomes to separate at meiosis in the egg, with the consequence that the individual has 47 rather than usual 46 chromosomes. This generally occurs more frequently to:

(a) Older mothers

(b) Newly married mothers

(c) Mothers between 36 and 46 years

(d) Mothers above 46 years

(e) None of the above

78. Sometimes a sex chromosome abnormality is found among females. In this anomaly, a female has three rather than normal two X chromosomes. These females appear to be normal but have deficits in verbal skills and in short-term memory. Also they have normal secondary sexual development. This type of chromosomal abnormality is called:

(a) Turner Syndrome

(b) Triple-X syndrome

(c) Down Syndrome

(d) Klinefelter’s Syndrome

(e) None of the above

79. Very often girls do not develop secondary sex characteristics without estrogen therapy. They have difficulty with spatial relationships and handwriting. At puberty, they remain infantile in the development of the mammary glands. They have only 45 chromosomes. This is a sex chromosome abnormality in which only an X chromosome is present in each cell (XO) pattern i.e., instead of having customary XX combination of sex chromosomes, the second X chromosome is missed and the girl has XO pattern. This chromosome abnormality is generally called:

(a) Turner Syndrome

(b) Down Syndrome

(c) Triple-X syndrome

(d) Klinefelter’s syndrome

(e) None of the above

80. Some males are found sterile and they have feminine breasts and hips. These persons are X, XY individuals i.e., it is a sex chromosome abnormality in which an extra X chromosome is present in every cell. This type of abnormal sex chromosomal patterns in males is known as:

(a) Fragile-X syndrome

(b) Klinefelter’s syndrome

(c) Down syndrome

(d) Turner Syndrome

(e) None of the above

81. Sometimes individuals have an X chromo­some that appears to be pinched or narrowed in some areas. These chromosomes are so fragile that the pinched areas break and sections of the chromosome separate off. The syndrome has been associated with mild to profound retardation in males and occasio­nally with mild mental retardation in women. This sex chromosome abnormality is known as:

(a) Turner Syndrome

(b) Down Syndrome

(c) Klinefelter’s syndrome

(d) Fragile-X Syndrome

(e) None of the above

82. The presence of some of the sexual characteristics or reproductive systems of both males and females in one person is known:

(a) Hermaphroditism

(b) XXY males

(c) Klinefelter’s Syndrome

(d) Turner Syndrome

(e) None of the above

83. The changes in the genes which may produce new phenotypes are known as:

(a) Mutations

(b) Radiation

(c) Selection

(d) Evolution

(e) None of the above

84. The biologically based differences among individuals in reactions to stimuli, in the expressions of emotions, in arousal and in self-regulation is known as:

(a) Personality

(b) Temperament

(c) Habit

(d) Behaviour

(e) None of the above

85. Which one of the following is an example of a disorder carried on a recessive gene which in its heterozygotic form of sicklemia is adaptive in high malarial regions but destructive in such areas as those having high altitudes?

(a) Sickle-Cell anemia

(b) Down Syndrome

(c) Turner Syndrome

(d) Triple-X Syndrome

(e) None of the above

86. In the last 45 years or so, the study of animal behaviour has been spurred on by the growth of the branch of zoology known as:

(a) Biology

(b) Comparative Psychology

(c) Ethology

(d) Animal Psychology

(e) None of the above

87. Many species-typical behaviours consist of relatively fixed and inflexible patterns of movement triggered by a particular stimulus or event, in the environment. Such a stimulus is called a releaser and the behaviour released by such a stimulus is often called a:

(a) Flexible-Action Pattern

(b) Fixed-Action Pattern

(c) Response

(d) Specific Response

(e) None of the above

88. A bundle of fibres which connects areas of the cortex of one hemisphere with corres­ponding areas in the other hemisphere is known as “Corpus Callosum”. This Latin word “Corpus Callosum” means:

(a) Hard Body

(b) Soft Body

(c) White Matter

(d) Brown Matter

(e) None of the above

89. There would be an impairment in the consolidation of short-term memory into long-term memory if:

(a) The hippocampus and amygdala, struc­tures in the lower part of the temporal lobe are damaged

(b) The limbic system is damaged

(c) Reticular Activating System is damaged

(d) Medulla is damaged

(e) None of the above

90. The understanding of speech and written language would be impaired and the speech would be deficient in conveying meaning if:

(a) Reticular Activating System is damaged

(b) Wernicke’s area of the left temporal lobe is damaged

(c) Parasympathetic system is damaged

(d) Limbic System is damaged

(e) None of the above

91. The thyroid glands are located in the neck at either side of the:

(a) Adam’s Apple

(b) Pineal Gland

(c) Pituitary Gland

(d) Larynx

(e) None of the above

92. The adrenal glands are located:

(a) At the either side of the “Adam’s Apple”

(b) At the upper end of the kidneys

(c) Inside the brain

(d) Inside the sex organ

(e) None of the above

93. When a particular part of the brain is destroyed or cut off and its effect is studied on the function of the brain or human behaviour, the method to study the localization of functional areas of brain is known as :

(a) Action Potential Method

(b) Anatomical Method

(c) Method of Extirpation

(d) Method of Stimulation

(e) None of the above

94. The sympathetic nervous system consists of:

(a) 22 Sympathetic ganglia arranged along the spinal cord

(b) 22 Parasympathetic ganglia inside the spinal cord

(c) 20 Sympathetic ganglia inside the spinal cord

(d) 21 pairs of sympathetic gaglia arranged along the spinal cord

(e) None of the above

95. “With some very exceptions, one part of the cerebral cortex is potentially the same as another part in its functional capacity related to the learning process.” This principle is known as:

(a) The principle of Mass Action

(b) The principle of Equipotentiality

(c) Principle of Somasthetic Activity

(d) Principle of Motor Functions

(e) None of the above

96. Who opined that complex learning does not depend upon definite structure of a specific area of the cortex? On the other hand, complex learning depends upon the total organization of the cortex?

(a) K. S. Lashley

(b) D. B. Lindsley

(c) J. G. Jenkins

(d) G. Humphrey

(e) None of the above

97. Thyroid over secretion leads to:

(a) Myxedema

(b) Grave’s Disease

(c) Tetany

(d) Colloid goitre

(e) None of the above

98. Removal or destruction of the parathyroids leads to a condition called:

(a) Tetany

(b) Colloid Goitre

(c) Myxedema

(d) Grave’s disease

(e) None of the above

99. Thyroid deficiency in adulthood leads to a condition referred to as:

(a) Tetany

(b) Myxedema

(c) Colloid goitre

(d) Grave’s disease

(e) None of the above

100. Thyroid deficiency in infancy leads to:

(a) Cretinism

(b) Grave’s Disease

(c) Myxedema

(d) Tetany

(e) None of the above


1.(a) 2. (d) 3. (c) 4. (a) 5. (c) 6. (a) 7. (d) 8. (c) 9. (b) 10. (c) 11. (a) 12. (a) 13. (d) 14. (c) 15. (b) 16. (a) 17. (a) 18. (a) 19. (c) 20. (a) 21. (d) 22. (a) 23. (a) 24. (c) 25. (a) 26. (b) 27. (a) 28. (a) 29. (d) 30. (a) 31. (a) 32. (d) 33. (a) 34. (d) 35. (a) 36. (d) 37. (a) 38. (c) 39. (a) 40. (d) 41. (b) 42. (b) 43. (c) 44. (a) 45. (c) 46. (c) 47. (a) 48. (c) 49. (a) 50. (d) 51. (a) 52. (a) 53. (d) 54. (a) 55. (a) 56. (a) 57. (b) 58. (a) 59. (a) 60. (a) 61. (b) 62. (a) 63. (c) 64. (b) 65. (c) 66. (c) 67. (a) 68. (b) 69. (c) 70. (a) 71. (b) 72. (a) 73. (b) 74. (a) 75. (c) 76. (c) 77. (a) 78. (b) 79. (a) 80. (b) 81. (d) 82. (a) 83. (a) 84. (b) 85. (a) 86. (c) 87. (b) 88. (a) 89. (a) 90. (b) 91. (a) 92. (b) 93. (c) 94. (a) 95. (b) 96. (a) 97. (b) 98. (a) 99. (b) 100. (a)

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