Prominent
ways of thinking around illicit drug use in both past and present societies
stem from Foucauldian modes of thought (quote).

Foucault
established very intellectually written and thought out theories on why society
was perceived to be hooked on this drug as well as other illegal substances
(quote).

His theories
gained support during the late twentieth century as people did not have the resources
or knowledge like they do today to make well informed opinions on the subject. Theories
are used to provide substance to the concepts of individuals or groups of
people collectively, in a society where Heroin use was apparent and rapidly
becoming of detriment to many people the Foucauldian modes of thought would
provide them answers. Foucault ultimately provided them with theories that were
acceptable to them as they were in conjunction with their empirical realities
of society.

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The Foucauldian
concept of Bio-power have shifted from a repressive approach through the seventieth
and eighteenth centuries to that of a constructive approach1
through the nineteenth and twentieth century through to today. Biopower for
Foucault stands out from other more conventional theories in which he makes consistent
remarks that the threat of death from the State or Sovereign was paramount in
keeping the population orderly originally. In a time like our own where control
must be advocated sanely and on a humanitarian basis, Biopower is used by an
accentuation on the security, sanctity and preservation of life as opposed to the
danger of death and in turn led to the generation of different advancements of Power
over the population.

 

Many popular
theorists such as Hakosalo2
agreed with Foucalts train of thought and they agreed that Biopower

Biopower, described by Foucault as ‘control over life’,
constitutes control over singular bodies and also in the population as a whole.
Hakosalo3 characterizes
Biopower as the use of systems of control and pressure for the efficiency and
soundness of people and populaces, in light of a perspective of them as assets
and reasonable articles.

Political rationality
around the preservation of life rather than the destruction of it started to
become embedded in society during the late eighteenth century however,
politically it was still a much-debated topic. This era seen the population
grow rapidly (quote) and Foucault establishes this time as the first in history
that power focused on life rather than simply choosing death; political
presence had started to filter into the population and become intertwined with
all levels of society.

 

This interlace
with society would see the paradigm shift in focus move from population to the
individual body.

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