pre bone density and they lose bone mass

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Bone loss – A Silent Pain

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This paper will highlight the problem of bone loss. I
have tried to gather as much information as I can and have created a paper and
a PowerPoint. The teaching strategy used is called strategic learning. This
learning is based on strategy and I have presented a PowerPoint that will
present my concept in a better way.


The goal of my study is to highlight the causes and
effects of bone loss which is often neglected. My teaching resource
(PowerPoint) and this paper will help in spreading awareness about this issue.


Bone loss is quiet condition. It doesn’t’t knock on the front door, it doesn’t forewarn, and it creeps on quietly over the years.
Large number of people have no idea that they have suffered from bone lose
until one day they trip, fall and fracture a bone.


There are many misconceptions about bones. People
think of bones to be hard and durable, but studies have shown time and again
that bones are living tissues that grow and change throughout our lives sort of
like always work in progress. Old bones are constantly removed, and new bones
formed. In childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, new bone formation
constantly outruns the removal of old bone (Astray, 2017). As we get old,
however, that process reverses.


Bone lose affects both men and women as they age, but
women suffer the health consequences in very high numbers as compared to men.
In US, it is estimated by 2020 over half of all Americans could have weak bones
due to bone loss. Osteoporosis – The disease
resulting from bone loss – causes one and
half million fractures every year, including 300,000 hip fractures, 700,000
vertebral fractures, 250,000 wrist fractures, and more than 300,000 fractures
of other bones (Juois, 2014).


According to the 2009 Canadian community Health
Survey, estimates that approximately 1.5 million Canadians aged 40 years and
over have osteoporosis. Among these people women were four time more likely to
report having osteoporosis than men. Women are at more risk than men because
they start with lower bone density and they lose bone mass more quickly as they


Women reach peak bone mass between the ages of 25 and
30 (Jess, 2011), after that it’s downhill for bones. When women lose the protective
effect of estrogen, bone loss often accelerates at menopause. Five to seven
years after menopause women may lose up to 20 percent of their bone mass.




Risk Factors


Numerous factors influence women’s risk of bone loss, osteoporosis and fractures.


·   Age : Older
you are greater the risk.

·   Body size :
small, thin-boned women are at greater risk.

·   Genetics : If
your grandmother, mother, or sister had osteoporosis, you are at higher risk.

·   Ethnicity :
White and Asian women are at higher risk.

·   Personal
history : Any bone fracture after age 50 increases your risk of osteoporosis.

·   Smoking :
Among many downsides, it also produces adverse effects on bones.

·   Diet :
Inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D and exercise and consumption of
alcohol increases your risk of osteoporosis.

·   Slot : A
sedentary lifestyle weakens bones (Jess, 2011).

·   Medication use
: Long-term use of glucocorticoids and some other medication can promote bone


Reduce your risk of developing Osteoporosis


·   Physical
activity/Exercise : Regular exercise that involve weight-bearing aerobics and
resistance training is beneficial to bone development and maintenance.


Vitamins and Minerals


·   Calcium*:
Calcium rich is diet is best for the bone development which include good
sources of milk products such cheese and yogurt, fish, products containing
bones and calcium beverages such as soy and orange juice. Other food sources
include tofu, leafy greens and legumes such as soybeans or chickpeas. It’s very important to find out how much calcium you need
per day.

·   Vitamin D*:
Vitamin D is also very important for bone development because it supports body’s ability to absorb calcium. Vitamin D can be made in
the skin following exposure to the ultraviolet rays in sunlight, however, many
factors such as winter season, use of sunscreen, darker skin tone, older age
and extensive clothing coverage can reduce the amount of vitamin D our skin


**In a recent study conducted by department of
Orthopaedic surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin, china and Department of
Orthopaedic surgery, Hebel province Cangzhou Hospital of Integrated traditional
and western Medicine, Cangzhou, China (Natiel, 2016).

In a meta-analysis of 33 randomized clinical trials
that included 51145 participants, use of supplements that included calcium and
vitamin D, or both was not associated with a significant difference in the risk
of hip fractures compared with placebo or no treatment (risk ratio, 1.53, 1.21,
and 1.09, respectively.) (Astray, 2017)

Meaning: These findings do not support the routine use
of these supplements in community-dwelling older adults.


Bone loss and Cancer


Cancer survivors have greater risk of osteoporosis and
fractures. A premenopausal who goes through chemotherapy may experience early
menopause. The patient is at risk of bone loss because of the shorter duration
of exposure to the bone-preserving effects of estrogens.


Treatment for bone loss


Drugs like bisphosphonates are good for the treatment
for osteoporosis and low bone density (Jess, 2011). Additionally,
Fosamax (Alendronate), Acetonel and Boniva work by slowing down the rate at
which body breaks down bone.





Astray. (2017). pubmed.
Retrieved from ncbi:
Jess. (2011). health.
Retrieved from bone:
Natiel. (2016). pubmed.
Retrieved from ncbi:


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