Poultry including chicken meatChicken meat is often used
Poultry meat is consumed all around the world and, over the last few decades, has increased in popularity in many countries. Among the reasons for this increased consumption are the relatively low costs of production, the rapid growth rate of poultry, the high nutritional value of the meat and the introduction of many new further processed products. Overall, the poultry industry has changed dramatically over the past 50 years. The Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) was established by an Act passed by the Parliament in December, 1985. APEDA is mandated with the responsibility of export promotion and development of the products of floriculture, fresh fruits, vegetables, animal products including poultry products, processed foods and cereals. The report on export of poultry and poultry products published by Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics (DGCIS) for the year 2015 – 16 indicates steady increase during the past few years. During last three years the export of poultry products has grown on an average 18% per year increasing from Rs. 564 crores in 2013-14 to Rs. 769 crores in 2015-16. The total quantity of poultry products exported increased from 4,40,000 MT to 6,60,000 MT during this period. Tuticorin port in Tamil Nadu handled 5,40,000 MT, that is 82% of total poultry products exported by volume. In the year 2015-16, the major countries to which the poultry products exported in the order from high to low value are Oman, Saudi Arabia, Japan, Germany, Maldives, Bahrain, Indonesia, Netherland and Vietnam. In total, the poultry products are being exported to more than 75 countries all over the world .The major poultry products exported in the order of value from high to low is fresh chicken eggs, egg powder, egg yolk powder, frozen chicken meat and offal, chicken hatching eggs and hatching eggs of other species. Other poultry products exported from India are frozen meat cuts of chicken, ducks, turkey and Guinea fowl, fresh eggs of other poultry species and live poultry of chicken, ducks, geese, turkeys and Guinea fowls. The country has exported 4,49,527.49 MT of Poultry products to the world for the worth of Rs. 531.65 Crores/ 79.51 USD Millions during the year 2016-17. Secondary processing usually refers to further processing of the raw carcass into value-added product forms.Although whole carcasses were the main product form prior to 1980, customer demands for more convenient food products drove the poultry processing industry toward cut-up parts and boneless, skinless meat. Just as important, consumers were willing to spend more for convenience foods and value-added products. Processors also found an outlet for USDA non-Grade A carcasses. If a part was trimmed due to defects, the rest of the carcass could be cut into parts and sold at a higher price per kg. Sausages containing meat mixes including chicken meatChicken meat is often used to partly substitute the red meats in meat products especially of the raw-cooked type such as luncheon meat, bologna or hotdogs. In such cases the chicken meat percentage can vary substantially. As a good manufacturing practice, the percentage of chicken meat should be indicated for consumer information, as such products are normally perceived as pork or beef products, not containing chicken meat. Also some liver sausages can contain larger quantities of chicken meat. These products are commonly called as “Chicken Liver Sausage”, although in many cases the liver and animal fats derive from pork.Sausages and other products with 100% chicken meatBesides the use of chicken meat in mixed red meat products, there are many well established and popular products which contain chicken meat only. When processed chicken and turkey meat products were introduced on a broader scale a few decades ago, traditional red meat recipes where simply modified and red muscle meat was replaced by poultry meat and pork fat by fat rich chicken skin. For these poultry products such as chicken frankfurter, chicken bologna etc., non-meat ingredients and the processing technologies remain basically the same as for the corresponding processed red meat products. Manufacturers even endeavour to make chicken and turkey sausages similar to red meat sausages in taste and flavour, but point out the health benefits of poultry products .Chicken frankfurter and chicken bologna are finely comminuted products, which can be considered as raw-cooked products . Lean chicken meat provides the proteins and chicken skin replaces the fat to be finely dispersed in the sausage batter. Filled in small casings (18-22mm), this typical raw-cooked sausage mix is the basis for chicken frankfurters, when filled in larger casings (40-60mm), for chicken bologna. The mix also serves as the basis for products where coarse chicken meat (either diced or ground) is blended with batter and filled in casings of 60-80mm or cans. These products may be named chicken or turkey ham sausage, chicken or turkey roll etc. Chicken meat balls, a product in high demand in the Asian region, are also of the same category. They are manufactured based on the method used for traditional meat balls from red meat .Another chicken meat product, which resembles the cooked hams made from pork in both manufacture and appearance is called chicken ham (raw meat material may come from all parts of the chicken carcass) or chicken breast (in this case only chicken breast parts should be used). The meat material is tumbled together with brine containing curing salt, phosphates and spices, and either pasteurized when filled in casings or moulds or sterilized when filled in cans. For canned and sterilized chicken products.Other chicken meat productsCoated / breaded productsIn addition to chicken sausages, the chicken meat industry also developed new products, which contributed significantly to meeting the global increase in demand for poultry meat. These can be compared to a few examples from the red meat and fish sector, e.g. breaded and fried meat slices of pork or mutton known as “Escalope” or “Wiener Schnitzel” and in the fish sector as “fish fingers”.