Pistachio nut (Pistacia
vera L.) is one of
the most delicious and nutritious nuts in the world. During the production process of pistachio paste,
pistachio kernels are dehulled, roasted, and ground into paste (1). Roasting
is one of the processing steps involved in the nut processing industry to
improve the flavor, color, texture, and overall acceptability of the product (2-5). The roasting
conditions of nuts are determined by the type
of nut and roaster.  It was reported that
the most suitable roasting conditions for macadamia (6), peanuts (7), and sesame
seeds (8) were 135°C (20 min), 160°C (40-50 min), and 155-170°C (40-60 min), respectively.
Although the effects of roasting conditions on the
quality of pistachio nut have been studied in previous studies, most of them
focused on modeling and optimization of roasting for different varieties of the
same nut for direct consumption. However, the present study aimed to find the
optimum roasting conditions for producing pistachio paste. Due
to the high nutritional value and favorable color of pistachio paste, it can be
used as an ingredient in ice cream, desserts, and sauces. Pistachio paste is usually shelf stable.
However, oil separation during storage affects the colloidal stability,
consumer acceptability, and marketability of the product (9). The stability of food colloids, such as chocolate,
peanut butter, and sesame paste are strongly influenced by particle size
distribution (10-14). Although there are several published studies
on the colloidal stability of pastes, none
of them have investigated the impact of particle size distribution on colloidal
stability or the color of pistachio paste. Based
on the above explanation, the objectives of this chapter were the
following:

(1)                
To determine the
optimum hot-air roasting conditions (temperature and time) that would produce
suitably roasted pistachio nuts for production of paste, and

(2)                
To determine the effect of different particle sizes on
the colloidal stability and the color of pistachio paste.

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