People people were mistreated and outcast was because

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People with down syndrome have been treated quite terribly throughout time. One of the reasons people were mistreated and outcast was because they had different appearances than others. Their eyes have epicanthal folds and are more almond shaped and their irises may have brushfield spots. The bridge of the nose is smaller making it appear to be a button nose. The neck tends to be thicker and have excess flesh, this is one of the traits that can be seen on an ultrasound. (2)All around people with down syndrome tend to have a lower than normal muscle tone. All people with down syndrome have an additional copy of chromosome 21 existent in a great majority of their cells. The characteristics of down syndrome are caused by the excess genetic that modifies the development. Because of the physical differences of people with down syndrome they were often not treated right and they still aren’t to this day. The origin of this excess chromosome is still unclear, the only thing that has been associated to an increased chance of having a baby with down syndrome is the age of the mother whilst pregnant. “Once a woman has given birth to a baby with trisomy 21 or translocation, it is estimated that her chances of having another baby with trisomy 21 is 1 in 100 up until age 40. Women under the age of 35 gave birth to 80% of children with down syndrome.” The partial or full copy of the 21 chromosome which causes down syndrome can come from either of the parents, relativity 5% of the cases have been tracked to the father. Most cases are random occurrences but, in about ? of occurrences, one of the parents is carrying a translocated chromosome.(5) The oldest case of down syndrome was found in the skeleton of a child who died 1500 years ago in the abbey of Saint-Jean-des-Vignes in northeastern France. According to the archaeologists, the way the child was buried implicated that humans with down syndrome were not necessarily “stigmatized” in the middle ages.  The small child had been laid on its back in the tomb, in an “east-west” direction with the head at the westward end which was common with all of the dead at the necropolis, this implicates that the child was treated no differently in death from other members of the society. It seems that people in medieval times did not mistreat people with disability. (1)The Eastern State Hospital in Williamsburg, Virginia was known as the first state to form an institution for the mentally ill. Mentally ill people were called terrible names such as lunatics and idiots. “Hundreds of thousands of developmentally disabled children and adults were institutionalized, many for life.”. Institutionalization was not generally forced but parents were often firmly encouraged to institutionalize their kids and told to dismiss from their minds any memory or thought of that particular family member. It wasn’t until the 1950s that “deinstitutionalization” began, along with the closing of insane asylums and a couple mental institutions. (3)In 1793 Phillipe Pinel and Jean Baptiste Pussin are acknowledged as the first men in Europe to take off the restraints that withheld people with disability and propose more gentle, humane ways into the care of the mentally ill at the Asylum de Bicêtre in Paris, France. Jean Baptiste Pussin inspired Phillipe Pinel and they spread improvements like identifying different disorders, as well as watching and communicating with the patients. (3)Americans embraced the “eugenics” movement which was a term Sir Francis Galton came up with in his book “Essays in Eugenics” by establishing laws to prevent people with disabilities from moving to the United States or getting marrying and having children. Eugenics forced institutionalization and involuntary sterilization of kids and adults with down syndrome or other disabilities. Indiana also embraced the eugenics laws legalizing sterilization practices. Connecticut followed in Indiana’s foot steps 1909 and an eugenics movement began in California specifically targeting “non-Nordic” people by using forced sterilization and putting up marriage boundaries. Written by Henery H. Goddard “The Kallikak Family” introduced the notion that disability is associated with immorality. The book became a “best-seller” and encouraged the eugenics movement. The film “The Black Stork” was influenced by the incredible case of Dr. Harry Haiselden. It features a couple who have a newborn with many disabilities, they are convinced by a Chicago surgeon to kill the child by starving it to death instead of getting surgery that would save its life. (3)        World War II began and Hitler ordered a huge “mercy killing” of ill and disabled people. The Nazi euthanasia program also known as “Aktion T4” was started to get rid of “life unworthy of life.”  One of the first laws passed by the Nazis was the “Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring,” individuals with specific conditions were physically forced to be sterilized. “An intricate institutional and bureaucratic framework of doctors, nurses, lawyers, and administrators was set up, and about 300,000 people were forcibly sterilized during the 1930s.”  In the year of 1941 Hitler finally ended the awful Aktion T4 program that murdered approximately 100,000 innocent people. Sadly, the killing didn’t stop, through the use of drugs and starvation many more people were murdered. In total  200,000 people with developmental disabilities were murdered in cold blood by starvation or lethal injection.(3)(5)The “National Association for Retarded Citizens” was founded  following the acknowledgment of one hundred parent groups all over the entire country. A constitution is proposed with the purpose “to promote the welfare of mentally retarded people of all ages and to prevent mental retardation.” In 1951 this constitution was at last accepted. Before he was inaugurated, President John F. Kennedy made a “task force” focused completely on mental retardation. After he was inaugurated, he established the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the institute is still in existence today. The institute was charged with conducting and supporting research on mental retardation as well as all aspects of maternal and child health and human development. President Kennedy creates The President’s Panel on Mental Retardation, a 27-member panel tasked with drafting a comprehensive federal approach to mental retardation. He announced the appointment of “a panel of outstanding scientists, doctors, and others to prescribe a plan of action in the field of mental retardation.” He added, “The central problems of cause and prevention remain unsolved, and I believe that we as a country, in association with scientists all over the world, should make a comprehensive attack.” President Kennedy begins a movement to deinstitutionalize disabled people by asking for a decrease “over a number of years and by hundreds of thousands of persons confined” in institutions and that people invent other ways to “to remain in and return to the community the mentally ill and mentally retarded, and thereto restore and revitalize their lives through better health programs and strengthened educational and rehabilitation services.”(3)Over time, people with down syndrome have been more accepted and given better treatment options. There is still hate in the general community but overall people have become much more welcoming of people with disabilities.There is whole community for humans with disabilities that offers a variety of activities and education opportunities. Group homes are a friendly and welcoming environment for people to live together under the tender love of caretakers that cook, clean, and assist them with whatever they need. The disabled have many more job options at places such as restaurants and grocery stores and other small local businesses.

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